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Taxonomy-Classification

Part 1: Using the lab animation, fill in the following data tables to help you answer the questions that follow:

Table 1: Samples 1-5

Phylum/Division Sample 1: Chrysophyta Sample 2: Annelida Sample 3: Arthropoda Sample 4: Amphibia Sample 5: Aves
Common Feature
Nutrition
How does the organism break down and absorb food?
Circulatory System (Transport)
How does the organism get what it needs to cells (open, closed, diffusion only)?
Respiratory System
How does the organism get oxygen and release carbon dioxide?
Reproductive System
Does the organism use asexual or sexual reproduction (eggs, seeds, spores, placenta, type of fertilization)?
Excretory System
How does the organism get rid of wastes and maintain an ionic balance of fluids?
Growth and Development
Does the organism go through metamorphosis, develop in an egg or uterus, or grow from seeds?
Regulation
How does the organism control body processes (hormones, nervous system)?
Sample organism

Table 2: Samples 6-10

Phylum/Division Sample 6: Reptilians Sample 7: Mammalia Sample 8: Bryophyta Sample 9:
Gymnosperm Sample 10: Angiosperm
Common Feature
Nutrition
How does the organism break down and absorb food?
Circulatory System (Transport)
How does the organism get what it needs to cells (open, closed, diffusion only)?
Respiratory System
How does the organism get oxygen and release carbon dioxide?
Reproductive System
Does the organism use asexual or sexual reproduction (eggs, seeds, spores, placenta, type of fertilization)?
Excretory System
How does the organism get rid of wastes and maintain an ionic balance of fluids?
Growth and Development
Does the organism go through metamorphosis, develop in an egg or uterus, or grow from seeds?
Regulation
How does the organism control body processes (hormones, nervous system)?
Sample organism

Part 2: Using the completed data table, answer the following questions:

1. What is common among all samples?

2. What is common among organisms from samples 1, 9, and 10?

3. What is common between the circulatory system of organisms from samples 5, 6, and 7, but different in organisms from sample 4?

4. What is common in the respiration system of organisms from samples 2 and 4?

5. What gas is delivered to the respiratory system of organisms from samples 1, 9, and 10? Why?

6. Which organisms are producers?

7. Which organisms are decomposers?

8. Look at the surface of your hand. You will see the skin and hair made up of protein called keratin. Which organisms did humans inherit that protein from?

9. Which organisms have blood?

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Table 1: Samples 1-5

Phylum/Division
Common Feature
Nutrition
How does the organism break down and absorb food?

Sample 1: Chrysophyta
Food get absorb by diffusion; they absorb food by endocytosis. They break down food by lysosomes

Sample 2: Annelida
Food is sucked up by earthworms mouth and gets passed through to earthworms pharynx, or throat. The food passes through the esophagus, and into crop that moistens and stores the food temporarily. If the crop is moistened, it moves to the gizzards and churns the food inside.

Sample 3: Arthropoda
Arthropoda have specialized distinct organs working together to break down food and absorb nutrients. For example, a grasshopper has several chambers; A foregut, an esophagus and a crop, where food is moistened and stored. A midgut with gastric ceca, pouches that extend from midgut where digestion take place. (2)

Sample 4: Amphibia
Amphibian have sticky tongue at the front of mouth so they can extend out to catch insects. They have alimentary canal( mouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine) where food is digested and absorbed. Stomach makes gastric juices to break down food. Pyloric sphincter muscle controls movement of food from stomach into first part of intestine.
Liver make bile to digest fats; stored in gall bladder. The pancreas make pancreatic juice to digest food in small intestine

Sample 5: Aves
Birds have specialized bills to help them eat and take bites. However, they do not chew food. Birds will swallow whole food. If the food is too large or awkward, they will break it into smaller pieces. Birds can rip or shred food as fruit or prey. They will use their bills to break up harder nuts. (3)

Circulatory System (Transport)
How does the organism get what it needs to cells (open, closed, diffusion only)?

Sample 1: Chrysophyta
They rely on simple diffusion, which is the passive movement of materials from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration

Sample 2: Annelida

A series of closed vessels is responsible for circulation. The two main vessels are the main pumping structures . In dorsal vessel, the blood moves anteriorly. Oxygen is carried by the respiratory pigment hemoglobing, that dissolve in the fluid portion of the blood.

Sample 3: Arthropoda

Arthropod have an open circulatory systems consisting of dorsal heart that collects blood from the body cavity. (2)

Sample 4: Amphibia
It has a closed circulatory system where there are 3 chambered heart ( right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from body, left atrium receives oxygenated blood from lungs. The ventricles pumps blood to lungs and rest of the body. It has a double loop blood circulation. The arteries carries blood from ventricles to body cells.

Sample 5: Aves
The circulatory system of birds contain four-chambered heart and blood vessels. A large volume of blood will be carried throughout the bird's body by vessels called arteries. Blood is returned to heart by vessels called veins. (3)

Respiratory System
How does the organism get oxygen and release carbon dioxide?

Sample 1: Chrysophyta
They get their oxygen from the sun and carbon dioxide by a process of photosynthesis where they convert sunlight and C02 into food and oxygen .

Sample 2: Annelida

All respiration occurred through the skin. Some earthworm have gills associated with segments which are extension of the parapodia in polychaetes.

Sample 3: Arthropoda

The respiration takes place through the body surface by means of gills, trachea, and book lungs. (2)

Sample 4: Amphibia
They use gills to breathe. Some breathe through lungs and moist skin called cutaneous respiration. (ex. Frogs)
Glottis is the opening into the throat and lungs.

Sample 5: Aves
The four organs of the birds work together to carry out oxygen to the nostrils, trachea, lungs, and air sacs. The air moves through nostrils, down the trachea and into lungs and air sacs. From lungs, oxygen passes into bloodstream and to body cells. (3)

Reproductive System
Does the organism use asexual or sexual reproduction (eggs, seeds, spores, placenta, type of fertilization)?

Sample 1: Chrysophyta
They can reproduce sexually, but the normal form of reproduction is cell division or asexual reproduction

Sample 2: Annelida

Annelid can reproduce asexually by dividing into two or more pieces or by budding off a new individual.
Some annelid can reproduce sexually. They were thought to be from two separate sexes that releases ova and sperm into the water via their nephridia.

Sample 3: Arthropoda

Fertilization is internal in most but not all groups. Most can lay eggs and the development often proceed with some of metamorphosis.
(2)

Sample 4: Amphibia
Amphibian such ...

Solution Summary

Organisms are different from one another based on their taxonomic classification. These classification are associated with nutrition, circulatory system, respiratory system, reproductive system, excretory system, growth and development, and regulation.

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