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Therapy: Cross Cultural Counselling

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1. Define cross cultural counseling and provide a scenario.

2. Describe the self actualizing Therapist, and provide an example.

3. What does it mean to be a "role free" counselor as it is referred to in the text?

Parrott III, L. (2003). Counseling and psychotherapy (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole/Thomson Learning.

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1. Cross Cultural Counselling

As is hinted by the name of the counselling technique, it is cross cultural by nature. What it means is that the techniques and the structure of the counselling itself takes into account the varied ethnicities, mores, traditions, belief systems - cultures - of the people being counselled for the purpose of aid, alleviation, rehabilitation and mental/emotional relief. Cultural psychology, the anchor behind cross-cultural counselling teaches that cultural traditions and social practices regulate, express, and transform the human psyche. According to George Doherty, a Cross-Cultural Counsellor handling Disasters,

"All people respond to stimuli and situations by either changing themselves or the environment and by combining these two operations in various proportions. Historically, the implicit goal of counselling and psychotherapy has been to bring about a greater degree of conformity to the norms of the dominant majority group. The contemporary cross-cultural counselor or therapist faces a choice. He/she can prepare the client for changing obstacles in the environment, or he/she can equip the client for a greater degree of accommodation to the social structure in its current state. The increase in the individual's options also involves choices on the extent and nature of one's relationships, reference groups, and identity, especially in relation to one's ethnic or cultural group."

In this vein, let us take this scenario - a Mexican-American family, ...

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Das (1998)
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Answer the following three short-answer questions (250 words for each topic): Please support any ideas with references from scholarly literatures or books.

1- What, in your opinion, what are some of the possible cross-cultural limitations of the person-centred approach to counselling?

2- Helping clients create meaning in their lives is arguably the ultimate goal of Viktor Frankl's logotherapy; however, this process may appear quite abstract and esoteric to many clients and counsellors. Das (1998) articulated four specific steps that help make this process more concrete and relevant for both counsellors and clients. Briefly describe those four steps.

3- Identify a hypothetical counselling scenario (client's presenting concern) in which you would appropriately use the Gestalt empty-chair technique. In your answer, briefly describe how you would actually implement the empty-chair technique and provide a rationale for its use (i.e., what is the expected outcome of this intervention, given the hypothetical presenting concern you have selected).

These are References relevant to these questions you may find helpful:
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Freud, A. (1964). The ego and the mechanisms of defence (C. Baines, Trans.). New York: International Universities Press. (Original work published 1936)
Ikonen, P. (2002). The basic tools of psychoanalysis. The Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review, 25, 12-19.
Laughlin, H. P. (1983). The ego and its defenses (2nd edition). Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.
Vaillant, G. E. (Ed.). (1992). Ego mechanisms of defense: A guide for clinicians and researchers. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Westen, D. (1998). The scientific legacy of Sigmund Freud: Toward a psychodynamically informed psychological science. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 3, 333-371.

Bettner, B. L., & Lew A. (1993). The Connexions Focussing Technique for couple therapy: A model for understanding life-style and complementarity in couples. Individual Psychology, 49, 372-391.

Bitter, J. R., & Nicoll, W. G. (2000). Adlerian brief therapy with individuals: Process and practice. Journal of Individual Psychology, 56, 31-44.
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Dreikurs, R., Grunwald, B. B., & Pepper, F. C. (1982). Maintaining sanity in the classroom: Classroom management techniques (2nd edition). New York: Harper & Row.
Mosak, H. H., & Maniacci, M. P. (2008). Adlerian psychotherapy. In R. J. Corsini, & D. Wedding (Eds.) Current psychotherapies (8th edition) (pp. 63-106). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Peterson, J., & Nesenholz, B. (1999). Orientation to Counseling (4th edition). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Shulman, B. H., & Mosak, H. H. (1988). Manual for Life Style Assessment. London: Accelerated Development.
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Munteanu, M. A. (1993b). Psychodynamic interpretations of the immigrant's dream: Comments on Adler's (1993) "Refugee dreams and attachment theory". The B.C. Counsellor, 15, 2, 45-56.
Myers, I. B., McCaulley, M. H., Quenk, N. L., & Hammer, A. L. (1998). MBTI Manual: A guide to the development and use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (3rd ed.). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Singer, J. K. (1994). Boundaries of the soul: The practice of Jung's psychology. New York: Anchor Books/Doubleday.
Singer, J., Loomis, M., Kirkhart, E., & Kirkhart, L. (1996). The Singer-Loomis Type Deployment Inventory (Version 4.1). Gresham, OR: Moving Boundaries Inc.
Sharp, D. (1990). C. G. Jung lexicon: A primer of terms and concepts. Toronto, ON: Inner City Books.
Spoto, A. (1995). Jung's typology in perspective (revised ed.). Wilmette, IL: Chiron Publ.
von Franz, M.-L., & Hillman, J. (1996). Lectures on typology. Woodstock, CN: Spring Publications, Inc.

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