Answer the following three short-answer questions (250 words for each topic): Please support any ideas with references from scholarly literatures or books.
1- What, in your opinion, what are some of the possible cross-cultural limitations of the person-centred approach to counselling?
2- Helping clients create meaning in their lives is arguably the ultimate goal of Viktor Frankl's logotherapy; however, this process may appear quite abstract and esoteric to many clients and counsellors. Das (1998) articulated four specific steps that help make this process more concrete and relevant for both counsellors and clients. Briefly describe those four steps.
3- Identify a hypothetical counselling scenario (client's presenting concern) in which you would appropriately use the Gestalt empty-chair technique. In your answer, briefly describe how you would actually implement the empty-chair technique and provide a rationale for its use (i.e., what is the expected outcome of this intervention, given the hypothetical presenting concern you have selected).
These are References relevant to these questions you may find helpful:
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Freud, A. (1964). The ego and the mechanisms of defence (C. Baines, Trans.). New York: International Universities Press. (Original work published 1936)
Ikonen, P. (2002). The basic tools of psychoanalysis. The Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review, 25, 12-19.
Laughlin, H. P. (1983). The ego and its defenses (2nd edition). Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.
Vaillant, G. E. (Ed.). (1992). Ego mechanisms of defense: A guide for clinicians and researchers. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Westen, D. (1998). The scientific legacy of Sigmund Freud: Toward a psychodynamically informed psychological science. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 3, 333-371.
Bettner, B. L., & Lew A. (1993). The Connexions Focussing Technique for couple therapy: A model for understanding life-style and complementarity in couples. Individual Psychology, 49, 372-391.
Bitter, J. R., & Nicoll, W. G. (2000). Adlerian brief therapy with individuals: Process and practice. Journal of Individual Psychology, 56, 31-44.
Dreikurs, R. (1997). Holistic medicine. Individual Psychology, 53, 2, 127-205.
Dreikurs, R., Grunwald, B. B., & Pepper, F. C. (1982). Maintaining sanity in the classroom: Classroom management techniques (2nd edition). New York: Harper & Row.
Mosak, H. H., & Maniacci, M. P. (2008). Adlerian psychotherapy. In R. J. Corsini, & D. Wedding (Eds.) Current psychotherapies (8th edition) (pp. 63-106). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Peterson, J., & Nesenholz, B. (1999). Orientation to Counseling (4th edition). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Shulman, B. H., & Mosak, H. H. (1988). Manual for Life Style Assessment. London: Accelerated Development.
Allan, J. (1988). Inscapes of the child's world: Jungian counseling in schools and clinics. Dallas, TX: Spring Publications.
Dehing, J. (1991). The therapist's interventions in Jungian analysis. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 37, 2947.
Ellenberger, H. F. (1970). The discovery of the unconscious: The history and evolution of dynamic psychiatry. New York: Basic Books.
Gray, H., Wheelwright, J. H., & Wheelwright, J. B. (1964). Jungian Type Survey. San Francisco, CA: Society of Jungian Analysts.
Hopke, R. H. (1999). A guided tour of the Collected Works of C. G. Jung. Boston, MA: Shambhala.
Jung, C. G. (1971). Psychological types. In H. Read, M. Fordham, G. Adler, & W. McGuire (Eds.), The collected works of C. G. Jung (Vol. 6). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. (Original work published 1921)
Munteanu, M. A. (1993a). ["Jungian Sandplay: The Wonderful Therapy" by Joel Ryce-Menuhin, 1992] International Journal of Special Education, 8, 1, 92-94.
Munteanu, M. A. (1993b). Psychodynamic interpretations of the immigrant's dream: Comments on Adler's (1993) "Refugee dreams and attachment theory". The B.C. Counsellor, 15, 2, 45-56.
Myers, I. B., McCaulley, M. H., Quenk, N. L., & Hammer, A. L. (1998). MBTI Manual: A guide to the development and use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (3rd ed.). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Singer, J. K. (1994). Boundaries of the soul: The practice of Jung's psychology. New York: Anchor Books/Doubleday.
Singer, J., Loomis, M., Kirkhart, E., & Kirkhart, L. (1996). The Singer-Loomis Type Deployment Inventory (Version 4.1). Gresham, OR: Moving Boundaries Inc.
Sharp, D. (1990). C. G. Jung lexicon: A primer of terms and concepts. Toronto, ON: Inner City Books.
Spoto, A. (1995). Jung's typology in perspective (revised ed.). Wilmette, IL: Chiron Publ.
von Franz, M.-L., & Hillman, J. (1996). Lectures on typology. Woodstock, CN: Spring Publications, Inc.
1 - What, in your opinion, what are some of the possible cross-cultural limitations of the person-centered approach to counselling?
In utilizing the "person-centered approach" (PCA) to counselling; it is crucial that the counselor/therapist is cognizant how his/her own personal cultural values, beliefs, codes and background can be/ and are different from the clients. For example; the counselor can be from a more Westernized background than the client. As such, it is paramount to be aware of cultural prejudices; ethnocentrism and bias especially where it relates to individualism and personal fulfilment (Corsini & Wedding, 2011). The PCA to counselling can also be very different and especially challenging for clients who are from cultures in which psychological interventions; counselling and therapy are perceived as taboos, and something to be ashamed of. For example; in South Asian cultures such interventions and the act of receiving counselling is perceived as a weakness.
Therefore in PCA counselling which is often not as regimented or structured; individuals and the level of impact from such counselling differ and can impact the effectiveness of the sessions (Corsini & Wedding, 2011). In addition, some cultures are uneasy with direct communication or disclosing personal situations and circumstances; and so because the PCA requires a certain level of empathy and self-disclosure, openness and candidness; this can pose a major conflict (Corsini & Wedding, 2011). The counsellor or therapist will not be able to fully "reach" and facilitate the client getting to his/her "full potential" in terms of clarification and finding answers and the clients will not fully benefit from this as they could see it as self-indulging. This lack of openness will be a major barrier and thereat to the effectiveness of the PCA to counselling.
Chapter 5 of Corsini and Wedding
2 - Helping clients create meaning in their lives is arguably the ultimate goal of Viktor Frankl's logotherapy; however, this process may appear quite abstract and esoteric to many clients and counsellors. Das (1998) articulated four specific steps that help make this process more concrete and relevant for both counsellors and clients. Briefly describe those four steps.
According to Das (1998) and in keeping with Frankl's theory of personality which is ...
The expert examines cross-cultural limitations are examined.