Developmental psychology seeks to address various aspects of human development, including physical, cognitive, social, moral, and personality development.Discuss the influences on all of these types of development and use ADOLESCENCE (12-20 YEARS)as a stage of development.
Address the following in relationship to the stage of development selected:
What factors affect physical development? Consider both hereditary and environmental influences. Provide examples.
What factors affect cognitive development? Consider both hereditary and environmental influences. Provide examples?© BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com May 20, 2020, 6:38 pm ad1c9bdddf
These questions tie into the nature/nurture (heredity/environment) controversy. Let's take a closer look at these two interesting questions.
1. What factors affect physical development? Consider both hereditary and environmental influences. Provide examples.
Adolescence is the transition period from childhood to adulthood, a period that brings sometimes tumultuous physical, social, and emotional changes.
Physically, adolescence begins with the onset of puberty and extends to adulthood, usually spanning the years between 12 and 20. Puberty is a biological process and the period during which the reproductive system matures, a process characterized by a marked increase in sex hormones. There is a heredity component to the time of onset of puberty, as mothers who have a late-set puberty often have daughters who also have late-set puberty. Height and to a lesser degree, weight, have a hereditary component. If a child has tall parent(s), she or he is likely to be tall as well. Likewise for those who have two short parent(s). There are always exceptions to the rule, however. However, physical development in all adolescence includes a growth spurt as the body fills out, voice changes (especially in males), and an increase in sex hormones. This is a biological fact. So are the secondary sex characteristics, such as breasts in females and facial hair in males that occur early in puberty (11 to 14). Depending on heredity and when their mothers (to some extent) first started to menstruate, girls' first menstruation (menarche) usually occurs between the ages of 11 and 14. (http://dissertations.ub.rug.nl/FILES/faculties/rw/2005/a.m.bosch/c2.pdf)
Weight has an environmental component, as children eat what they see other eat. If their parents eat nutritional meals and exercise regularly, they are more likely to imitate these behaviors. Peers and schools play a role here too. Schools who take the out pop and candy machines (and place more nutritional drinks and sandwiches, for example) are a positive influence on weight, as well as have a participation programs where children have daily exercise.
2. What factors affect cognitive development? Consider both hereditary and environmental influences. Provide examples?
This depends on the theory of cognitive develop one holds. Piaget gives less attention to social factors than does Vygotsky, for example. Most agree however, that there are hereditary ...
Discusses the factors that influence physical and cognitive development in the adolescent stage of development. Examples are provided.