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Deductive reasoning and the approaches

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What are your thoughts on the content of this discussion below as it relates to reasoning. Do you agree or disagree? Why

This person will compare and contrast the four approaches to reasoning, and explain how the context of the problem can influence the choice of approach to use. They will describe a time when they experienced functional fixedness in trying to solve a problem

This is their discussion:

Deductive reasoning begins with known facts. Deductive reasoning are prone to errors and these errors tend to be a result of short cuts that are not actually sort cuts at all. The text uses the example All men are mortal, Socrates is a man, therefore: Socrates is mortal. Now this is an assumption we are assuming that because both premises are true that the outcome must be true; thus deductive reasoning. This form of reasoning assumes that the outcome will be true if we feel both premises are true. For example I can say I have a black dog (first premise), my dog is a Labrador (second premise), therefore: all labs are black. Clearly this is an untrue statement but because of deductive reasoning we have to assume all labs are black based on premise one and two.

Unlike deductive reasoning inductive reasoning uses specific examples to come up with a conclusion. Usually these lead to hypothesis, and predictions. This does not mean though that the conclusions drawn with inductive reasoning are all true. The text uses the example "These graduates of Harvard University became U.S. Presidents. Therefore, all U.S. Presidents are graduates from Harvard University". Clearly that is an untrue conclusion. So I could say these peaches are purple therefore all peaches are purple. Now I can create a hypothesis to prove this.

Conditional reasoning statements take the role of if A then B. This form of reasoning uses two forms of conclusions; modus ponens and modus tollens. "Modus ponens affirms that if A (the premise) is true then B the conclusion must be true. Modus tollens states that if A (the premise) is true then B the conclusion is false". An example of modus ponens would be that; if plants require sun light so if there are plants there are sunlight. And an example of modus tollens would be if there are no plants there is no sunlight. This form of reasoning is similar to the other forms of reasoning in that if the premise is true the conclusion is true and vice versa; if it is false the conclusion is false.

Functional Fixedness - The problem I used was when I had bought my kids a blow up pool and after we got it set up I realized I had no outside hose hookup. So I had nowhere to attach my hose to fill it. After thinking outside the box I realized I could use the big bucket I have and run in and out filling it up in the bathtub. Granit it was a very exhausting task it was worth it for my children.

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Solution Summary

Deductive reasoning and the approaches are provided. Functional fixes in trying to solve a problem is provided.

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The discussion used was very clear and decisive. Just as you stated, deductive reasoning is based on assumption because deductive reasoning arrives at a specific conclusion based on generalizations. Inductive reasoning takes events, observations, or even situations, and then makes ...

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  • MS,
  • MA Education (Family and Community Services), Ashford University
  • B.A., Ashford University
  • A.S., Oklahoma State University
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