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Reasoning: Deductive and Inductive

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Describe a brief description of one failure of deductive reasoning and one failure of inductive reasoning that was observed or experienced in the past week or so. Then, within the examples provided, explain the impediments (e.g., heuristic, bias, etc.) to each process (deductive and inductive), and suggest methods or techniques for improving each process.

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Solution Summary

This solution provides a brief description of an observance of a recent activity or event in which deductive and inductive reasoning was a failure. It is about 500 words with references.

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(a) Deductive reasoning

Deductive reasoning involves reaching conclusions from a set of conditional propositions which can either be true or false. This form of reasoning helps individuals to use arguments to connect propositions and draw conclusions (Sternberg, 2006, 456). Further, deductive reasoning explores the implications of statements about the world. If the connection between the statements follows a logical pattern, then if the first statement is true, the second one must necessarily be true. One of the failures of deductive reasoning is that although a statement can be true, the conclusion can be false. A simple example, if one states that all well-trained dogs are friendly, so all friendly dogs must be well trained. While the first statement is valid and true, the second statement (the conclusion) is false. According to Sternberg, often individuals engage in heuristic shortcuts that lead to inaccurate conclusions (p. ...

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