See the attached file.
1- Assist with ideas and help write a brief, but well written summary of the article. Then a second paragraph
discussing: What would a day without AC be like for you? Think of a typical day and whether it would be an enjoyable experience. Why or why not?
Washington didn't grind to a sweaty halt last week under triple-digit temperatures. People didn't even slow down. Instead, the three-day, 100-plus-degree, record-shattering heat wave prompted Washingtonians to crank up their favorite humidity-reducing, electricity-bill-busting, fluorocarbon-filled appliance: the air conditioner.
This isn't smart. In a country that's among the world's highest greenhouse-gas emitters, air conditioning is one of the worst power-guzzlers. The energy required to air-condition American homes and retail spaces has doubled since the early 1990s. Turning buildings into refrigerators burns fossil fuels, which emits greenhouse gases, which raises global temperatures, which creates a need for -- you guessed it -- more air-conditioning.
A.C.'s obvious public-health benefits during severe heat waves do not justify its lavish use in everyday life for months on end. Less than half a century ago, America thrived with only the spottiest use of air conditioning. It could again. While central air will always be needed in facilities such as hospitals, archives and cooling centers for those who are vulnerable to heat, what would an otherwise A.C.-free Washington look like?
In a world without air conditioning, a warmer, more flexible, more relaxed workplace helps make summer a time to slow down again. Three-digit temperatures prompt siestas. Code-orange days mean offices are closed. Shorter summer business hours and month-long closings -- common in pre-air-conditioned America -- return.
Business suits are out, for both sexes. And with the right to open a window, office employees no longer have to carry sweaters or space heaters to work in the summer. After a long absence, ceiling fans, window fans and desk fans (and, for that matter, paperweights) take back the American office.
Best of all, Washington's biggest business -- government -- is transformed. In 1978, 50 years after air conditioning was installed in Congress, New York Times columnist Russell Baker noted that, pre-A.C., Congress was forced to adjourn to avoid Washington's torturous summers, and "the nation enjoyed a respite from the promulgation of more laws, the depredations of lobbyists, the hatching of new schemes for Federal expansion and, of course, the cost of maintaining a government running at full blast."
Post-A.C., Congress again adjourns for the summer, giving "tea partiers" the smaller government they seek. During unseasonably warm spring and fall days, hearings are held under canopies on the Capitol lawn. What better way to foster open government and prompt politicians to focus on climate change?
Homeowners from Ward 8 to the Palisades pry open double-hung windows that were painted shut decades ago. In the air-conditioned age, fear of crime was often cited by people reluctant to open their homes to night breezes. In Washington, as in most of the world's warm cities, window grilles (not "bars," please) are now standard.
In renovation and new construction alike, high ceilings, better cross-ventilation, whole-house fans, screened porches, basements and white "cool roofs" to reflect solar rays become de rigueur. Home utility bills plummet.
Families unplug as many heat-generating appliances as possible. Forget clothes dryers --post-A.C. neighborhoods are crisscrossed with clotheslines. The hot stove is abandoned for the grill, and dinner is eaten on the porch.
Saying goodbye to A.C. means saying hello to the world. With more people spending more time outdoors -- particularly in the late afternoon and evening, when temperatures fall more quickly outside than they do inside -- neighborhoods see a boom in spontaneous summertime socializing.
Rather than cowering alone in chilly home-entertainment rooms, neighbors get to know one another. Because there are more people outside, streets in high-crime areas become safer. As a result of all this, a strange thing happens: Deaths from heat decline. Elderly people no longer die alone inside sweltering apartments, too afraid to venture outside for help and too isolated to be noticed. Instead, people look out for one another during heat waves, checking in on their most vulnerable neighbors.
Children -- and others -- take to bikes and scooters, because of the cooling effect of air movement. Calls for more summer school and even year-round school cease. Our kids don't need more time inside, everyone agrees; they need the shady playgrounds and water sprinklers that spring up in every neighborhood.
"Green roofs" of grass, ivy and even food crops sprout on the flat tops of government and commercial buildings around the city, including the White House. These layers of soil and vegetation (on top of a crucially leak-proof surface) insulate interiors from the pounding sun, while water from the plants' leaves provides evaporative cooling. More trees than ever appear in both private and public spaces.
And the Mall is reborn as the National Grove.
See attached for other 2 articles.© BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com October 25, 2018, 8:26 am ad1c9bdddf
See the attached file.
Make it simple using this outline:
1. Summary - 100 words
2. Reflection - 100 words
3. Position - 100 words
As you have provided 3 articles, this means repeating the process 3x over. This should provide you with 900 words which should cover what you need. Just let me know via feedback section if you need further clarification. All the best with your studies.
AE 105878/Xenia Jones
Article Review Guide
- Article 1: "In the heat wave, the case against air conditioning"
- Author: Stan Cox
- Details: in 'The Washington Post', Sunday, July 11, 2010
In this article, author Stan Cox cleverly relates the use of AC to American politics, wastefulness, and points to a case of an ever worsening green-house gas emission worldwide. Cox laments that (2010) that , "Turning buildings into refrigerators burns fossil fuels, which emits greenhouse gases, which raises global temperatures, which creates a need for -- you guessed it -- more air-conditioning." His article breaks down this position by detailing AC use and its impact in the workplace, at home and around town. He relates it to the tendency of children not spending time outside - were doing so would be a far healthier for the body and the mind. He also relates it to society being blind - as we are moved by our need to be cooler; we forget that we are feeding the demand, and doing so emits more gases into the air, making the earth warmer which makes the demand for AC higher. A warmer environment impacts the way politicians work, as according to Cox, AC keeps people inside, keeps them cranking out laws without viewing the actual situation in society. Non-AC offices will allow for people to go outside, to talk with their communities, to have a more open government.
I understand Cox's position. Although in the beginning I thought to myself that it appears to be a stretch - relating politics and pollution to over-use of AC, he provides compelling details that support his position. Hot summers are tough - especially in this day and age. When temperatures rise, it can get quite uncomfortable even ...
The solution describes what it would be like on a day without air conditioning.
History - African Elements in African American English
Please see the attachment.
Explain the attached articles and note the main points in each one.
1. Africanisms in African American Names in the United States, is by Joseph E. Holloway.
2. African Elements in African American English, is by Asante.