I need help with the attached to add toward changes in the health field that would apply towards each of the 3 theories. I have those theories and instructions in the attachment.
The name of each theoretical model is listed below. I just need help with a description of the type of change situation in the health field where each theoretical model best applies. I need at least a paragraph or two for each change model for each theory.
Goal Setting Theory- Gary Latham and Edwin Locke (1983).
Setting the goal-
Should have two main characteristics which are
1. The goals should be specific and measurable.
2. The goal should be challenging yet attainable.
Determining goals for an employee
1. Use time and motion studies to set appropriate goal levels.
2. Setting future goal levels based on past performance levels.
3. Allow employee to jointly set goal.
4. Determining goals by external forces.
5. Determine long-term goals as determined by organizations Board of Trustees.
Obtaining the goals.
1. Managers need to make sure that employees remain committed to goals.
2. Appropriate pay and incentives.
3. Reinforcement to receive satisfaction for reaching goals.
4. Reinforcement acceptance for future goals.
1. Perception of themselves not being able to obtain goals.
2. Need for training.
3. No relationship between personal benefits and goals.
Providing Support Elements.
1. Adequate resources provided
2. Company policies and procedures must not create barriers.
3. Employees must trust managers that are supportive.
4. Action plan must be provided with agreed upon goals.
5. Employee must have access to the status of their goals.
Expectancy Theory-Victor Vroom (1964)
For managers the Expectancy Theory is very useful as it helps to understand a worker's behavior and why they would lack in motivation.
Valence- Strength of an individual's want, need, or dislike, for a particular outcome.
Instrumentality- An individual's perception that his or her performance is related to other outcomes, which are either negative or positive.
Expectancy- Individual's perception that their effort will positively influence their performance.
Newsom (1990) summary of Expectancy Theory
The Nine C's
1. Challenge- How hard the employee has to work for a job well done.
2. Criteria- Making sure to communicate to the employee the difference between good and bad performance.
3. Compensation-Does the outcomes associated with good performance reward the employee?
4. Capability-Employees' ability to perform well.
5. Confidence- Does the employee believe they can perform well enough?
6. Credibility- Does the employee have the confidence in the managers to deliver what is promised?
7. Consistency- Other employees receive similar outcomes for good performance and others receive less for bad performance.
8. Cost- The cost of employee's time and effort to perform well.
9. Communication- Does management communicate well enough to work with the other C's?
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs-Maslow (1954)
According to Maslow, humans have five needs and are driven to fulfill those needs.
1. Physiological- hunger /thirst.
2. Safety- security
3. Love and Belonging
5. Self actualization
Maslow states how to satisfy these basic needs in employees:
1. Physiological is adequate salary and working conditions.
2. Safety needs would be in job security, security for the future such as retirement, medical plans, and a safe working environment.
3. Love and belonging (affiliation needs)- positive interactions with co-workers and managers.
4. Self-Esteem needs- Recognition, promotions, decision making.
5. Self-Actualization-Self fulfillment from job, autonomy, ability to create and demonstrate innovation in challenging tasks.
Provide a description of the type of change situation in the health field where each theoretical model best applies.
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Applying the Theories in Health Care Settings
Psychologists have studied human motivation extensively and have formulated a variety of needs-based theories as well as theories about what motivates people towards change behaviour. Needs-based theories have included but have not been limited to: Maslow's hierarchy of need while Vroom's expectancy theory, and Lathan and Locke's goal setting theory are based on intrinsic factors that focus on internal thought processes and perceptions about motivation (Lambrou, Kontodimopoulos & Niakas, 2010). As the theories apply to health care, attaining and maintaining health objectives in a population depends to a large extent on the provision of effective, efficient, accessible, viable and high-quality services. The health workforce, present in sufficient numbers and appropriately allocated across different occupations and geographical regions is arguably the most important input in a unique production process and has a strong impact on overall health system performance, like we have seen with obesity and its burden on the American system.
Goal Setting Theory- Gary Latham and Edwin Locke (1983).
A health care example with Lathan-Locke's Theory is:
Based on Lathan and Locke's theory, family can lend support, as well as friends, community etc. A family-based treatment program may achieve this result through increasing the individual's or a child's social support, self-efficacy and enjoyment of physical activity and healthy eating. Such programs are ideal mostly because they provide an ideal environment that involves the entire family, which encourages families to support each other in making positive health behavior changes. Overall, weight management programs can improve self-efficacy by setting progressive goals. Similar to Maslow's, as individuals meet their goals they become empowered; and tend to develop enhanced self-efficacy to make even more challenging-yet achievable behavior. As such, multi-disciplinary family-based behavioral obesity treatment programs increase individuals' (patients') physical functioning, social support, self-efficacy and enjoyment of health behaviors and lives. Such changes are crucial as psychosocial factors are linked to increased success in creating; maintaining; and achieving health behavior changes (Locke & Latham, 2006).
Additionally, individuals can set goals to lose weight that are:
- measurable (weigh themselves)-Monitor weight loss.
- goal should be challenging yet attainable-Can set a goal of walking 20 minutes per day and increase an extra 5 minutes weekly; then daily; and so on.
- Individuals can set certain times of day to exercise, where, when and how.
- Individuals could team up or create a 'buddy workout' system or have a 'workout pal' for motivation and support.
- Individuals can offer themselves incentives -For example, with each 2 lb. weight loss the individual can buy that have his/her favorite ice cream or something special from a department store.
The goal practices endorsed by Lathan and Locke serve as guides and motivators. According to this theory, after perceived self-efficacy and self-evaluative reactions to one's health behavior are taken into account; neither intentions nor perceived behavioral control add any incremental predictiveness. As such, the factors that predict health behavior when considered singly may not add any unique prediction when tested alongside other factors. As the theory applies to the health care field; one can examine the mechanisms through which health communications alter health habits: By disseminating information on how bad habits affect health; by instilling fear of diseases (e.g., public service ...
The theories and changes in the health field are determined.