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Multi-Drug Resistance-Tuberculosis

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Does the historical aspect of TB infection cause concern about MDB-TB and the ability of quarantine measure to effectively control the spread of the disease? Why or why not?

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Multi-Drug Resistance-Tuberculosis is thoroughly explored. References are also provided to justify the assertions.

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Multi-Drug Resistance-Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by germs that are spread from person to person

through the air. TB usually affects the lungs, but it can also affect other parts of the body, such as

the brain, the kidneys, or the spine. In most cases, TB is treatable; however, persons with TB can

die if they do not get proper treatment. Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) is TB that is resistant

to at least two of the best anti-TB drugs, isoniazid and rifampicin. These drugs are considered

first-line drugs and are used to treat all persons with TB disease.

Extensively drug resistant TB (XDR TB) is a relatively rare type of MDR TB. XDR TB

is defined as TB which is resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin, plus resistant to any

fluoroquinolone and at least one of three injectable second-line drugs (i.e., amikacin, kanamycin,

or capreomycin). Because XDR TB is resistant to first-line and second line drugs, patients are

left with treatment options that are much less effective. XDR TB is of special concern for

persons with HIV infection or other conditions that can weaken the immune system. These

persons are more likely to develop TB disease once they are infected, and also have a higher risk

of death once they develop TB. Drug-susceptible TB and MDR TB are spread the same way. TB

germs are put into the air when a person with TB disease of the lungs or throat coughs, sneezes,

speaks, or sings. These germs can float in the air for several hours, depending on the

environment. Persons who breathe in the air containing these TB germs can become infected.

Resistance to anti-TB drugs can occur when these drugs are misused or mismanaged.

Examples include when patients do not complete their full course of treatment; when health-care

providers prescribe the wrong treatment, the wrong dose, or length of time for taking the drugs;

when the supply of drugs is not always available; or when the drugs are of poor quality.

Drug resistance is more common in people who:

• do not take ...

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