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Microbiology: Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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Select a resident microorganism for the SLP. Provide a general description of the microorganism, where in the human it resides, and the reasons you selected it for the SLP. Be sure to use the scientific name for the microbes selected for the SLP. (Also the genus and species of each organism must be written in italics. The genus of the organism is always capitalized while the species is not capitalized. For example, Actinomyces bovis.) Discuss the ecological niche that each microorganism is found in its natural environment.

An ecological niche is that area or space in the environment where a specific species of microorganisms can survive and reproduce. "Certain combinations of environmental conditions are necessary for individuals of each species to tolerate the physical environment, obtain energy and nutrients, and avoid predators" (Pidwirnery, 2006). What are the growth conditions required by this microorganism and how do they relate to where in the body they reside?

Be sure you understand the difference between a pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganism. Is this organism a pathogen or non-pathogenic (consider the terms, opportunist and symbiont)? Can it be both? If so, under what conditions?

Definition of Pathogenic and Opportunistic Microorganisms

Pathogenic Microorganisms are defined as: Microorganisms which have virulence factors and can cause disease in hosts with a normal defense capacity. Virulence factors may involve resistance to nonspecific host defense factors.

Opportunistic Microorganisms are defined as: Microorganisms which only can cause disease if host resistance is (sufficiently) decreased.

Recommended format for SLP

Please think through how you organize your material and how it is presented. Here is a suggestion, but you are free to organize your presentation in a manner that is comfortable to you. The major headings are approximate descriptions of each SLP module:

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Introduction
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the microorganism selected. It causes tuberculosis (TB), which is the leading cause of death in the world from a bacterial infectious disease. (1) The TB disease affects about 1.8 billion people per year equal to one-third of the entire world population. Mycobacterium tuberculosis reside in humans and humans are the only reservoir for the bacterium. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) was the cause of the "White Plague" of the 17th and 18th centuries in Europe, in which about 100 percent of the Europena population was infected and 25% of adult deaths caused by MTB.

General Characteristics
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a large nonmotile rod-shaped bacterium found in the normal flora of humans. Its rods are about 2-4 micrometers in length and 0.2-0.5 um in width. (1,2,3)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an obligate aerobe, which means that it requires oxygen to survive. For that reason, Mycobacterium tuberculosis resides in the well-aerated upper lobes of the ...

Solution Summary

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a large nonmotile rod-shaped bacterium found in the normal flora of humans. Its rods are about 2-4 micrometers in length and 0.2-0.5 um in width. (1,2,3)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an obligate aerobe, which means that it requires oxygen to survive. For that reason, Mycobacterium tuberculosis resides in the well-aerated upper lobes of the lungs. Its is a facultative intracellular parasite with slow generation time. The ecological niche of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis is in the lungs where there is always oxygen available for these obligate aerobe to survive. (1) The well-aerated upper lobes of the lungs is the ecological niche of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These is the region where the microbes can survive and reproduce well. The growth conditions for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a well oxygenated environment. It needs oxygen to survive and the lungs provide a well- oxygenated environment for the microbes to proliferate.

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Microbiology Study Questions

1. Clostridium and Streptococcus are both catalase-negative. Streptococcus grows by fermentation. Why is Clostridium killed by oxygen, whereas Streptococcus is not?

2. Assume that after washing your hands, you leave ten bacteria cells on a new bar of soap. You then decide to do a plate count of the soap after it was left in the soap dish for 24 hours. You dilute 1g of the soap 1:106 and plate it on standard plate count agar. After 24 hours of incubation, there are 168 colonies. How many bacteria were on the soap? How did they get there?

3. Why is each of the following bacteria often resistant to disinfectants?
1. Mycobacterium
2. Pseudomonas
3. Bacillus

4. Explain why gram-negative bacteria are more resistant to biocides than gram-positive bacteria. Be specific and descriptive in your response. A description of the differences between gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria should be included, along with an explanation of why any of those differences would have anything to do with the actions of biocides.

5. Ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and acyclovir are used to treat microbial infections. Ciprofloxacin inhibits DNA gyrase. Erythromycin binds in front of the A site on the 50S subunit of a ribosome. Acyclovir is a guanine analog.
1. What steps in protein synthesis are inhibited by each drug?
2. Which drug is more effective against bacteria? Why?
3. Which drug is more effective against viruses? Why?
4. Which drugs will have effects on the host's cells? Why?
5. Use the index to identify the disease for which acyclovir is used. Why is it more effective than erythromycin for treating this disease?

6. Design an experiment using the vaccinia virus to make a vaccine against AIDS virus (HIV).

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