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Respiratory Disorders

9. A, Explain the significance and limitations of a positive tuberculin test.

9. B. Explain the conditions under which tuberculosis may be contagious.

9. C. What measures can be taken by health professionals to minimize the spread of infection.

10. A. Explain how obstruction develops with chronic bronchitis.

10. B. Explain how acute asthma causes air trapping or atelectasis.

10. C. How does hypoxia and respiratory alkalosis develop in the early stages of an asthma attack?

10. D. Explain why serum pH is lowered when an asthma attack persists.

11. A. Explain why the anteroposterior diameter of the chest is increased in a patient with emphysema.

11. B. Explain why hypercapnia may be a major problem in patients with emphysema.

11. C. Explain how each of the following develops in patients with emphysema: (1) cor pulmonale, (2) secondary polycythemia.

16. A. Explain why pulmonary edema causes severe hypoxia.

16. B. Trace the path of a pulmonary embolus resulting from thrombophlebitus.

16. C. Compare the effects on respiration of a very small embolus and of a very large one.

Solution Preview

Interesting questions! Let's take a closer look at each question through various sources, which you can then draw on for your final responses. I also include the links for further expansion, if necessary.

RESPONSE:

9. A, Explain the significance and limitations of a positive tuberculin test.

A tuberculin skin test is done to see if you have ever had tuberculosis (TB) (Mycobacterium tuberculosis). It is done by putting a small amount of TB protein (antigens) under the top layer of skin on your inner forearm. If you have ever been exposed to the TB bacteria, your skin will react to the antigens by developing a firm red bump at the site within 2 days. The Mantoux skin test uses TB antigens called purified protein derivative (PPD). The Mantoux test uses a measured amount of PPD in a shot that is put under the top layer of skin on your forearm. A Mantoux test is a good test for a TB infection. It is often used when symptoms, screening, or testing, such as a chest X-ray, show that a person may have TB. Although it is significant in diagnosing exposure to TB, the test cannot tell if the infection is active or inactive (latent). Another limitation is that a positive tuberculin skin test cannot tell how long you have been infected with TB or if the infection can be passed to others (active TB) (see http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/tuberculin-skin-tests).

9. B. Explain the conditions under which tuberculosis may be contagious.

Tuberculosis (TB) is a lung illness caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis can present itself as an infection or a disease, depending on whether the tuberculosis bacterium is active or inactive. People with tuberculosis disease are contagious because the bacterium is active. Tuberculosis is a highly contagious disease. If you are in close contact with someone who has tuberculosis disease, you may have inhaled the Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium that causes tuberculosis (see http://lungdiseases.about.com/od/tuberculos2/f/tbtranstime.htm).

Specifically, tuberculosis is transmitted from person to person through the air during coughing and sneezing. When a person coughs or sneezes, the droplets containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis enter the air where those around them can inhale them. When the droplets are inhaled, the larger droplets become lodged in the upper respiratory tract and begin infection. Some droplets may reach the alveoli in the lungs and begin infection there. In the alveoli, the mycobacterium tuberculosis multiplies and enters the bloodstream, where they travel throughout the body. Within 2 to 10 weeks the immune system begins its attack on the mycobacterium tuberculosis to try to prevent further infection and disease (http://lungdiseases.about.com/od/tuberculos2/a/tb_infect_occur.htm). .

9. C. What measures can be taken by health professionals to minimize the spread of infection.

Infection Control are measures practiced by healthcare personnel intended to prevent spread, transmission and acquisition of infection between clients, from occupational therapists to clients, and from clients to occupational therapists in the healthcare setting. Infection control measures are based on how an infectious agent is transmitted and include standard and additional precautions (http://www.coto.org/pdf/InfectionControl_Standards.pdf).

To minimize the spread of infection, Standard Precautions (also called routine precautions) are in place e.g. activities to be used with all clients at all times. As a minimum, ...

Solution Summary

Related to respiratory disorders, this solution responds to the questions fully. Supplemented with an article on infection control standards.

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