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Managed Care, Collaboration, and Principled Negotiations

I need help with the following research discussions (not more than a page) thanks.

Managed Care
1. a. Given the ethical issues around managed care, discuss whether MCOs are good arrangements for patients.
b. Provide a concrete example for either a pro arrangement or against arrangement.
c. References

Collaboration and Principled Negotiations
1. It seems that the best outcome occurs when we progress from unilateral methods, to bilateral ones, and from positional to collaborative approaches.
a. What makes collaboration effective? Please provide opinions and thoughts.
b. References

Solution Preview

I need help with the following research discussions (not more than a page) thanks.
Managed Care
1. Given the ethical issues around managed care, discuss whether MCOs are good arrangements for patients?
Managed care organizations were introduced initially to control healthcare costs. Many organizations set limits on expenditures for various types of care, diagnostic tests, and procedures. Organizations also urged physicians to consider costs and limited visits by patients to those physicians enrolled in the managed care network. While most measures were designed to control costs, many non-managed care organizations today also use similar cost cutting measures, such as limiting visits and diagnostic tests. At the same time, these organizations are also requiring patients to pay a higher proportion of the costs out of pocket and have instituted high deductibles (Fang & Rizzi, 2007). It appears as though managed care organizations have not only attempted to restrict care, but have created further difficulties for patients, by raising the out of pocket expenses they pay within the managed care plan.
Essentially, managed care plans have made it nearly impossible for some patients to receive health care services, as their wages may not be sufficient to support high deductibles and co-pays. Managed care organizations are then not good arrangements for patients, particularly when working poor and working middle class patients and their families restrict their own use of healthcare, due to high deductibles and out of pocket expenses.
b. Provide a concrete example for either a pro arrangement or against arrangement
It was thought that controlling costs by limiting healthcare to specific providers, limiting the number of visits, and restricting diagnostic procedures would be effective. However, it appears that managed care organizations have either not been able to control costs through such measures, or have become so profit oriented that they ...

Solution Summary

The ethical issues around managed care is given. Concrete examples for pro arrangement or against arrangements are determined.

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