Read both of the articles that are above this discussion. Based on what you read, what impact does weight training have on BMD? Is this sufficient alone or is it necessary to supplement with calcium and iron? What if a woman you are training doesn't want to do HRT, what would you recommend? Your text addresses the importance of building peak bone mass as a youth before age related decline, what activity would you recommend children do to achieve this? Be sure to back up what your saying with a reference.
Please read article about osteoporosis (see attachments)
#1 preventing osteoporosis...
#2 Structural basis of growth-related gain and age-related loss of bone strength
1. Bone is dynamic and responds, similar to muscle, to stress placed upon it such that it may grow in thickness and in strength. Read both of the articles that are above this discussion. Based on what you read, what impact does weight training have on BMD?
As mentioned above, bone is dynamic and responds, similar to muscle, to stress placed upon it such that it may grow in thickness and in strength.
However, this is not true as we age. For example, Seeman (2008) says it this way: "modeling and remodeling are successful during growth, but not ageing". Problems result (e.g. fragility) as we age due to changes in material and restructuring of bone as we age; however, the body seems to balance out this process as we age e.g. for women, a few years following menopause. For example, Seeman (2008) reported: "Longevity is accompanied by reduced bone formation on the periosteal envelope and abnormalities in remodeling balance and rate on the endosteal envelope that compromise the material and structural properties of bone. Understanding of why or how bones fail at the material and structural level is essential if we are to provide targeted approaches to drug therapy". Bone fragility associated with osteoporosiss, "is the result of age-related abnormalities in bone remodeling and the osteocytic defense system which prevents damage accumulation and removes it when it occurs. Each remodeling event, whether adaptive or reparative leaves a deficit in bone volume producing structural decay" (Seeman, 2008).
Can weight lifting reduce or reverse this process and build BMD? It seems so.
In athletes, research suggests that weight or strength training is associated with significantly increased BMD (Todd, 2003, http://pmj.bmj.com/cgi/content/abstract/79/932/320). Similarly, Houtkooper (2007) found that two sets of each exercise were sufficient for increasing BMD and that the progression of lifting heavier weights over time was essential for increasing BMD (4, 5, 12). Specifically, Houtkooper et al (2007) reported the first year results, which demonstrated that the both exercise group participants significantly improved BMD (4). That is both the HRT and the no HRT groups significantly improved BMD, but the HRT group had a larger impact on BMD.
For example, at the 1-year point, for subjects undergoing HRT:
1. The HRT, calcium supplements, and exercise increased the hip femoral neck and trochanteric BMD by approximately 1% to 2%.
2. The HRT, calcium supplements, and no exercise had a negligible change in their BMD. (Houtkooper, 2007).
And, for subjects not undergoing HRT, there was a greater benefit:
1. No HRT, calcium supplements, and exercise increased hip trochanteric BMD by approximately 1%.
2. No HRT, calcium supplements, and no exercise significantly decreased their BMD.
Specifically, they found that "women undergoing HRT who consumed the lowest ...
Based on the articles, this solution discusses the impact weight training has on BMD and whether or not it is sufficient alone or if it is necessary to supplement with calcium and iron. It also discusses recommendations to make for a woman who is training but doesn't want to do HRT. To address the importance of building peak bone mass as a youth before age related decline, this solution also suggests activities to recommend children to do to achieve this. Research validated.