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# Hypothesis Testing of Cohort Studies

A recent prospective cohort study analyzed the effect of calcium plus vitamin D supplement use on the development of osteoporosis (weak and brittle bones).

QUESTION 11
What are the null and alternative hypotheses being investigated in this study? (Be sure to specify the exposure-outcome association under study along with the measure of association you will use.)

QUESTION 12
The authors reported a p-value for the association of 0.02. Which of the following statements are implied by this p-value?

a. Using calcium plus vitamin D supplements is associated with a lower risk of osteoporosis compared to not using supplements.

b. There is a statistically significant association between the use of calcium plus vitamin D supplements and osteoporosis at the 0.05 alpha level.

c. The 95% confidence interval for the relative risk contains the value of 1.

d. Under the alternative hypothesis, the probability of obtaining a result as extreme or more extreme that the one observed is 2%.

e. All of the above

QUESTION 13
A sample of Cambridge school-aged children are interviewed about the number of pieces of candy they received while trick-or-treating. For the 64 children surveyed, the mean number of pieces of candy collected was 37, with a standard deviation of 10. Calculate the 95% confidence interval for the sample mean number of pieces of candy collected.

QUESTION 14
State the formal statistical interpretation of the 95% confidence interval calculated in the previous question.

#### Solution Preview

A recent prospective cohort study analyzed the effect of calcium plus vitamin D supplement use on the development of osteoporosis (weak and brittle bones).

QUESTION 11
What are the null and alternative hypotheses being investigated in this study? (Be sure to specify the exposure-outcome association under study along with the measure of association you will use.)

Solution:

Null Hypothesis : Calcium plus vitamin D supplement has no effect
On the development of Osteoporosis.

Alternative Hypothesis : Calcium plus vitamin D supplement has effect
On the development of Osteoporosis.

Level of Association:

The above Null Hypothesis will be tested at a significance level of ...

#### Solution Summary

The solution uses hypothesis testing for prospective cohort study.

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