Explain the difference between prospective and retrospective cohort studies by performing a literature search to locate two studies that illustrate these types of studies and write a brief synopsis of each one, comparing and contrasting the two types of studies. How about polio vaccinated people verses unvaccinated people, or influenza perhaps? Please include references if possible?© BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com October 10, 2019, 2:14 am ad1c9bdddf
Epidemiological Investigation. Assignment for epidemiology and biostatistic:
Explain the difference between prospective and retrospective cohort studies by performing a literature search to locate two studies that illustrate these types of studies and write a brief synopsis of each one, comparing and contrasting the two types of studies. How about polio vaccinated people verses unvaccinated people, or influenza perhaps? Please include references if possible?
I have done these a lot so I have a number of studies for you to select from. There are 5 Retrospective Cohort Studies and 4 Prospective Cohort Studies with 10 references.
Epidemiological Cohort Study:
An epidemiological cohort study is the history of a group of diseases or illnesses
in a cross-section of like people. These people can be related by any type of history or
prospective history decided by the epidemiologist. For the purpose of a study, the like
group should have common characteristics to make the study yield significant
Most epidemiological studies are retrospective because it is easier to collect data
that has already occurred and apply a statistical model. The statistical data is meant to
show that the information gain had relevance. The group that has conducted the study
can make conclusion based on the data and may predict future events. For example, a
group of people who have had the vaccine for influenza may have their health
information collected to find trends in side effects. In a retrospective study, the size of
the group can make the results more statistically meaningful.
A prospective cohort study takes longer and is usually reserved for new study
data. An epidemiologist may find a new type of vaccine and will begin a study that takes
several years depending on the nature of the examination. Because a cohort study is a
longer study and takes often years of data gathering, it is not as popular. This study
watches for outcomes and must follow rigid guidelines to prevent bias. The study must
be limitations of the study must be kept at a minimum to make sure the results are
statistically meaningful. http://www.statsdirect.com/help/basics/prospective.htm
Epidemiological Cohort Retrospective Studies:
Why healthcare staff decline the influenza vaccination is the main objective of
this retrospective non-experimental study by Moore, 2009. She wanted to study why so
many of these workers either decline or were no-shows for a vaccine that was free and
has a 70% to 90% effective rate by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Her cohorts
were employees of the healthcare organization where she is a clinical specialist. After
receiving permission from the institutional review board, the primary investigator
reviewed the information from the forms of those who declined the free vaccine.
Emergency medical service (EMS) personnel are at the front ...
The difference between prospective and retrospective cohort studies is clearly indicated. References are also provided to further validate the findings.