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Tumor Markers

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Define the term tumor markers and give a brief description of its clinical use and methods of detection
Demonstrate, in a table/graph, 6 tumor markers by full name and abbreviation and the malignant neoplasm associated with it. some markers may be associated with more than one malignant condition, please include all that you find.
Demonstrate brief descriptions of the specific method of detection for each of the 6 markers that have been selected.

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Tumor marking definition and uses, methods for testing for tumor markers and examples of tumor markers are provided in the solution.

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*I have also attached this response as a Word Document. The formatting of the table for section 2 (6 tumor markers) is preserved in the attached document.

Definition of tumor markers:
Tumor markers are substances, usually proteins, that are made by cells in the body. Tumor markers are often produced by cells in response to cancerous conditions. They are often made by normal cells as well as by cancer cells, but when a person has cancer they are produced at a much higher level than normal (National Cancer Institute, 2011).

Clinical use and methods of detection:
Depending on the specific tumor marker, it may be detected in the various body fluids such as the blood or urine. Other tumor markers may be detected by sampling the tumor tissue or other tissues of patients with cancer. Tumor markers detected by taking a sample of body fluid or tumor tissue and then running tests on it in the laboratory to determine if the tumor marker is present. If it is present, laboratory testing is used to measure the level of the tumor marker (National Cancer Institute, 2011).

Tumor markers can help not only with the detection of cancer, but also with diagnosis and management of certain types of cancer. Tumor markers cannot be used to diagnose cancer on their own, but they can be useful in combination with other tests (e.g. biopsies). The level of elevation of the tumor marker may help indicate the extent or stage of the cancer and/or the prognosis. If the level of a tumor marker is elevated prior to treatment, the level can be followed during treatment to help determine whether the cancer is responding to therapy. For patients whose cancer has gone into remission, ...

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