Please read the following article,
After reading through this information, please share your thoughts regarding ethics and research involving humans. What is your reaction to the horrific research trials that were conducting prior to strict regulation of research involving human subjects? Where do we draw the line with research? How much risk should we take in order to find new discoveries that will improve the health and well-being of us all? If we are too strict or over-regulate our research we may miss findings that could be very beneficial. However, if we are not strict enough we may unnecessarily harm others.
A Brief History of Research Ethics
Centers for Disease Control & Prevention Information on Tuskegee Syphilis Trial
PBS Report of the Apology by President Clinton
Have you read the articles yet? They are informative and interesting! Let's take a lcoser look.
After reading through this information, please share your thoughts regarding ethics and research involving humans...
1. What is your reaction to the horrific research trials that were conducting prior to strict regulation of research involving human subjects?
One could be shocked and even angry (and many are); however, it is important to remember that back then there were no rules and regulations (however there were basic ethical precepts that were often ignore), and there was little research showing the extent of the negative impact on participants when subjected to such "horrific" treatment. Although we could argue it is common sense to NOT subject human beings to this types of 'horrific' treatment, it is also important to remember how human beings often justify their behavior through rationalization and justification and by using certain types of philosophies or ethical theories to argue that their action was indeed the right action. Utilitarian ethics, for example, might argue something to the effect: " it is okay to sacrifice the well-being of a few research participants for the good of many. Therefore, since research might save millions of lives and potentially harm only a few, it is right thing to do" from the Utilitarian ethics point of view. However, others argue against the utilitarian' viewpoint, and instead argue that all necessary safeguards must be in place to prevent any foreseen harm to the participants (e.g., signed consent - voluntary and to choose to stop participating at any time during the research project; if deception is used because within it, would challenge the results, the participants will be fully debriefed following the study) and for any unforeseen psychological consequences of the study offered professional counseling and the likes. The participant's well-bing is first and foremst, then society and science.
It wasn't until human rights became a political issue, that the treatment of human beings in a "fair" and "humane" manner became more important - which prompted human rights to be legislated into law. It made certain behaviors mandatory by law. These laws were then used to write codes of ethic which were (and still are) intended to guide people along 'legal' (to avoid legal suits) and ethical lines, including research behavior with human subjects as seen in the following excerpts.
In 1981, the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued regulations based on the Belmont Report. DHHS issued Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 45 (public welfare), Part 46 (protection of human subjects). The FDA issued CFR Title 21 (food and drugs), Parts 50 ...
Based on the article and ethics and research involving humans, this solution discusses one's reaction to the ethical issues in the article.
Research Methods and Design
These questions are taken from the textbook "Handbook of Training Evaluation and Measurement Methods" by Jack J. Phllips. I would like some insight to the following questions.
WHEN IS IT IMPORTANT TO USE CONTROL GROUPS IN THE EVALUATION PROCESS? IS THIS A COMMON PRACTICE? EXPLAIN.
WHAT FACTORS AFFECT THE TIMING OF MEASUREMENTS IN AN EVALUATION PROCESS?
ARE THE THREATS TO VALIDITY USUALLY CONSIDERED IN MOST EVALUATION SCHEMES? EXPLAIN.
SUPPOSE YOU ARE DEVELOPING A TRAINING PROGRAM FOR SALES REPRESENTATIVES IN AN EFFORT TO BOOST SALES IN A MEDIUM-SIZED ORGANIZATION. WHICH EVALUATION DESIGN MAY BE APPROPRIATE? EXPLAIN.
IN A SINGLE-GROUP TIME SERIES DESIGN, HOW MANY MEASUREMENTS ARE NECESSARY? EXPLAIN?
ONE HRD EXECUTIVE STATED, "...ALTHOUGH WE TRY TO SHOW THE RESULTS OF OUR PROGRAMS, WE ARE NOT CONCERNED THAT MUCH WITH EVALUATION DESIGNS." WHAT IS THE BASIS FOR THIS COMMENT?
WHEN CLASSIC EVALUATION DESIGNS ARE NOT FEASIBLE, HOW CAN THE INFLUENCE OF THE PROGRAM BE ISOLATED? EXPLAIN
WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO OBTAIN PARTICIPANT FEEDBACK IN TRAINING PROGRAMS?
ONE HRD MANAGER COMMENTED ".....SMILE SHEETS (PARTICIPANT FEEDBACK FORMS) ARE NOT WORTH THE TIME IT TAKES TO COMPLETE THEM. THESE HAPPINESS RATINGS DO NOTHING BUT FEED THE EGO OF THE INSTRUCTOR." IS THIS TRUE? EXPLAIN.
DESIGN A PARTICIPANT FEEDBACK FORM FOR A ONE-DAY WORKSHOP ON IMPROVING INTERVIEWING SKILLS.
WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ATTITUDE SURVEYS IN EVALUATION?
WHY ARE PERFORMANCE TESTS IMPORTANT TO HRD EVALUATION?
DESIGN AND DESCRIBE A PERFORMANCE TEST TO MEASURE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A TRAINING PROGRAM DESIGNED TO IMPROVE INTERVIEWING SKILLS.View Full Posting Details