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1) Various theories of disease causation that date back from ancient times to the present has lead to current disease prevention and health promotion strategies. Scientific and medical breakthroughs have also affected the current understanding of disease causation and disease prevention measures.
Describe the major scientific breakthroughs. In your description, discuss the affect that these breakthroughs have had on the evolution of disease causation theories. Include the effect(s) of these breakthroughs on the basic mechanisms of disease causation and health promotion measures used throughout history and today. These web sites were given as a reference: http://www.ph.ucla.edu/epi/snow/firstdiscoveredcholera.html

2) Various predisposing factors, such as age, sex, the environment, lifestyle, and heredity can cause one person (or population) to be more susceptible to a particular disease than another person (or population).
Consider the chain of infection, modes of disease transmission, and host susceptibility to disease. Describe the effects that a particular disease has on aging, the environment, lifestyle, and heredity has on the susceptibility to common chronic diseases. In your description, include an explanation detailing why some people (or populations) are more susceptible to certain diseases than other people (or populations).

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Major scientific breakthroughs include the development of penicillin, the development of DNA sequencing in genetics and Pancini's germ theory, among many others. The germ theory has had an impact on disease causation, as it has helped to identify the steps in the process in which one can acquire or become infected with a disease, such as a bacteria or virus that requires a host. Understanding how a germ works is important in gaining insight into how an organism not only gains entry, but infects a human host, as such a process occurs in the chain of infection, which requires an organism, a reservoir or place where the organism is stored, a portal of exit or method in which the organism is released, a mode of transmission, which is how the disease is spread, a portal of entry, or how the organism gains access to the human host and the host or human who becomes infected. Without understanding this chain of infection (DHSS, 2010), it would be difficult to develop effective treatments and prevention strategies that can break the cycle at one or more stages.

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