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examples of systemqatic and logical reasoning

Systematic Reasoning-- Reasoning in a formal way

In the following arguments, distinguish the claim from the warrant, that is, the conclusion from the premises:
1. Whenever interest rates are low there is a danger of inflation. I think such a danger exists now because the Federal Reserve has reduced interest rates substantially.
2. Newton was an abstract thinker because all scientists are abstract thinkers and Newton certainly was a scientist.
3. The republicans believe that making the rich richer will result in prosperity â??trickling downâ? to the poor. But the opposite has happened: the poor have only gotten poorer as wealth has increased for the wealthy. The trickle-down theory therefore has not worked.
4. Affirmative action programs are unfair to both mainstream and minority groups. The majority feel affirmative action is reverse discrimination, and the minority resent the implication that they can only succeed when given preferential treatment.
5. Because the death penalty has no deterrent effect and can result in the death of innocent people, it should be abolished.

Solution Preview

1. Premise: whenever interest rates are low. Conclusion: the Fed has substantially lowered interest rates, therefore there is a danger of inflation.

Faulty logic: because the Fed has reduced interest rates substantially, are they in fact low (however that is defined)? If low interest rates mean anything below 2.5% and ...

Solution Summary

distinguish the claim from the warrant, that is, the conclusion from the premises