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Common Approaches to Reasoning

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These are four of the common approaches to reasoning.

One approach suggests that all humans share to understanding humans share fundamental logical rules or methods of reasoning.

A second approach, "Availability Theory", suggests that we attempt to solve problems using methods that previously worked with problems that seem similar.

The third approach argues that certain social cues elicit problem-solving strategies that will maintain consistency with our beliefs.

The forth approach proposes that we construct "Mental Models" to represent the problem and logically manipulate theses internal representations to reach conclusions

#1). Compare and contrast the four approaches to reasoning listed above,

#2) and explain how the context of the problem can influence the choice of approach to use.

3). Describe a time when you experienced "Functional Fixedness" in trying to solve a problem.

4). Explain how cultural or social expectations created the mental set that prohibited you from solving it easily.

5). How did you 'think out of the box' to solve it?

Use scholarly sources to support your answers. Cite all sources with APA format

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#1). Compare and contrast the four approaches to reasoning listed above,

#2).and explain how the context of the problem can influence the choice of approach to use.

• Shared Logical Reasoning- The first approach to reasoning is essentially the definition of reasoning. "Reasoning is the set of processes that enables us to go beyond the information given" (University of Texas, n.d., p. 1). We all have the ability to use logical reasoning; can share an understanding of fundamental logical rules and methods of reasoning however, do not all share the same strengths related to both deductive and inductive reasoning. In the context of more complicated or professional-based decisions, it's likely that logical reasoning will be more frequently used.

• Availability Theory - Availability reasoning "is a mental shortcut that relies on immediate examples that come to mind" (Cherry, 2013, para 1). We attempt to solve our problems by using the most immediate solution that comes to mind, generally used previously with other problems that were similar in nature. This is similar to the aspects of deductive logical reasoning in that, in a given situation, we would deduct the best possible solution using past information as the measure for the present situation. In the context of needing a quick decision made, I would likely see Availability Theory being used more frequently.

• Social Cues - The third approach is one that uses social cues to elicit ...

Solution Summary

The common approaches to reasoning are provided. The third approaches that argue certain social cues which elicit problem-solving strategies are given.