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Assumptions, Critical Thinking and Logic

How do assumptions relate to the process of critical thinking?

What are the essential components of a logical argument?

What is the meaning of validity, truth, and soundness as they relate to the area of logical syllogisms?

What are the two formal fallacies?

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Please see the response attached, which is also presented below I hope this helps and take care.

RESPONSE:

1. How do assumptions relate to the process of critical thinking?

Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action. Because the assumptions one holds shape the way we think about things, assumptions play a major part in our critical thinking process. http://www.criticalthinking.org/aboutCT/definingCT.shtml
In fact, assumptions are one of the major components in critical thinking. For example, the major components in critical thinking are:

· Perception
· Assumptions
· Emotion
· Language
· Argument
· Fallacy
· Logic
· Problem Solving http://www.coping.org/write/percept/critical.htm

Critical thinking process consists of three steps which involves becoming aware and evaluating one's assumptions:
· 1. Becoming aware that assumptions exist
· 2. Making assumptions explicit
· 3. Assessing their accuracy
o Do these assumptions make sense?
o Do these assumptions fit reality as we understand and live it?
o Under what conditions do these assumptions seem to hold true? Under what conditions do they seem false? http://www.coping.org/write/percept/critical.htm

Thus, assumptions are central to Critical Thinking and are often implied (not conscious of them) and are not always bad. It rests on the notion some ideas are obvious, which make us comfortable with present beliefs & shut out alternatives. For more information on this site about assumptions see:

Stories from Email Posting To Test Your Critical Thinking: Assumptions SEE ATTACHED RESPONSE

2. What are the essential components of a logical argument?

A logical argument is a claim, used to persuade that something is (or not) true or should (or not) be done. It contains three basic elements:
o Issue
o One or more reasons (premises)
o One or more conclusions http://www.coping.org/write/percept/critical.htm

In other words, the chief concern of logic is how the ...

Solution Summary

This solution explains how assumptions relate to the process of critical thinking. It also explains the essential components of a logical argument, as well the the meaning of validity, truth, and soundness as they relate to the area of logical syllogisms. Then, the two formal fallacies are identified and explained.

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