How have federal and state laws, from 1964 to the present, affected trends in ELL instruction?
How have changes in the law affected classroom practice in relation to EL learners?
One easy to read and understand site that explains the laws that relate to ELL learners is found at: http://www3.ksde.org/sfp/esol/federallawandenglishlanguagelearners.htm
This site notes particularly the legislation enacted in 1964, which is the Civil Rights Act. Title six (VI) of that act states that no person shall be denied benefits or be subjected to discrimination based on race, color or national origin from any program that is funded through the Federal government. This would include education. US code 1703 specifically forbids states from denying educational opportunity based on their failure to take "appropriate action" to overcome language barriers in instructional programs. The US Dept. of Education Office of Civil Rights enforces Title VI, and has been interpreted to mean students whose limited proficiency in English prohibits them from participating in or benefiting from regular education. The 25 May Memorandum specifies that Title VI is violated unless limited English speakers are provided opportunity to learn English as quickly as possible through Special Education services, but are not to be assigned to classes for otherwise learning disabled students just because of low English proficiency, and also provides for notification to multi-national parents of school activities, in languages other than English. 1974's Equal Educational Opportunities Act ...
Laws that affect English as a second language learners in theUS, including citations, and how a classroom activity can be adapted, or modified, for ELL learners. Assessing comprehension suggestions included.