Explore BrainMass
Share

Orientations and Theories of Learning

This content was STOLEN from BrainMass.com - View the original, and get the already-completed solution here!

Negative experiences in the past can cause new information to take on a negative light in the mind of the learner. The teacher must be aware of this tendency and help the learner attempt to overcome this bias. The teacher should seek to discover positive past experiences to tie new learning to in order to make it more valid in the life of the learner."

Can you give an example of this?

Of the five orientations to learning, which do you believe has the most applicability to the field of andragogy? Justify your answer.

Andragogy refers to the education of adults (literally - man-learning) as opposed to pedagogy referring to the education of children (literally - child-learning). The five orientations of learning are behaviorist, humanist, cognitivist, social learning, and constructivist (sometimes called critical reflection).

Two of these orientations are very applicable to the field of andragogy.

The humanist stresses the following themes. The learner impacts and determines what is taught based on his/her felt or perceived needs. Experiential learning is a key strategy in humanist teaching. Teaching is student centered where teachers act more as facilitators rather than dispensers of knowledge. Problem solving is a key strategy and the ability to think critically and solve problems is valued over the simple acquisition of facts. Finally, a foundational belief is that the education process must conform to meet the needs of the student rather than forcing the student to conform to meet the needs or convenience of the educational process.

Constructivism is the other orientation with benefits for adult learners. Constructivism involves the learner in the planning stage of education and focuses on problem-solving, communication and creative skills rather than memorization. An aspect that is pertinent to adult learners is the belief that new information is shaped by past knowledge, experiences and relationships. Some key strategies in Constructivism are problem solving skills, experiential learning, self-directed learning, reflection and group/social learning skills.

Both of these orientations include excellent strategies that apply to adult learners. Both emphasize experiential learning and are focused on the student rather than the content. Both stress the importance of problem-solving skills. I believe constructivism is slightly more applicable because of its belief that new knowledge is hugely impacted by past experiences, relationships and knowledge. In children this would not be as important a concept because children have had far less life experience. Adults, however, bring to the classroom decades of life experience. These can build both positive and negative pathways to acquire new knowledge. Negative experiences in the past can cause new information to take on a negative light in the mind of the learner. The teacher must be aware of this tendency and help the learner attempt to overcome this bias. The teacher should seek to discover positive past experiences to tie new learning to in order to make it more valid in the life of the learner.

© BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com October 25, 2018, 6:31 am ad1c9bdddf
https://brainmass.com/education/adult/orientations-theories-learning-464235

Solution Preview

An example of a negative past experience impacting the current education of a student is a student who is suffering from their negative experience with a math class and cannot proceed in college algebra. I experienced negative math experiences during my high school years and at one point was in jeopardy of not graduating from high school as a result of math. Therefore, once I entered college I still harbored these ...

Solution Summary

Discusses the five orientations of learning.

$2.19
See Also This Related BrainMass Solution

Psychological Theories in Learning

Provide notes and assistance to the following questions:

To what extent and in what manner* do the views on student learning reflect the views of "two" of the following scholars:
B. F. Skinner
A. Maslow
J. Piaget or Vygotsky
A. Bandura
*Describe what students would be doing in the classroom that reflects these views.

To what extent and in what manner** does a teaching style reflect two of the following orientations?
Behaviorist
Cognitive
Humanistic
Social/Situational
**As a teacher, describe what you would be doing in your classroom that reflects this orientation.

References:

Atherton, J. S. (2011). Learning and teaching; What is learning? [On-line: UK] retrieved August 14, 2013, from http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/whatlearn.htm

Brown, C. (2013). Behaviorism: Skinner and Dennett. Retrieved February 28, 2014, from https://www.trinity.edu/cbrown/mind/behaviorism.html

Learning Theories. (2013). Behaviorism, Learning Theories Knowledge Base. Retrieved February 28, 2014, from http://www.learning-theories.com/behaviorism.html.

Learning Theories. (2013). Cognitivism, Learning Theories Knowledge Base. Retrieved February 28, 2014, from http://www.learning-theories.com/cognitivism.html

Learning Theories. (2013). Humanism, Learning Theories Knowledge Base. Retrieved February 28, 2014, from: http://www.learning-theories.com/humanism.html

Siegel, H. (2002). Philosophy of education and the Deweyan legacy. Educational Theory, 52(3), 273-288.

Smith, M. K. (2003). Learning Theory. The Informal Encyclopedia of Education. Retrieved August 14, 2013, from http://www.infed.org/biblio/b-learn.htm

View Full Posting Details