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    Organizational Leadership Capstone
    Chapter I. Thoughts on Leadership:
    Leadership plays an important role in the field of management, and it has been identified that effective leadership plays a crucial in influencing the performance of an organization. Leadership is the process of making influencing other people to follow. It is a very important aspect of management but differs from it. A leader with effective leadership practices can influence the people and, thereby, achieve the goals of the organization.
    (Chemers, 2014) stated that leadership is followed by a process, wherein common task is achieved, and it is based on influencing socially. It is the activity of bringing together all the functions and activities to be undertaken by the people so as to accomplish the goals. In support to the definition provided by (Fairholm, 2011) said that leadership is the process of making others act in order to achieve the goals. The major component is that carrying out activities to achieve the goals. In spite of this, (Ricketts C. & Ricketts, J., 2010) contradicted both the authors and suggested that it a series of actions to be carried out by people. It is a continuous and never-ending process that keeps on going for a longer period of time.
    Warren Bennis emphasized that a leader should be authentic. He used a combination of experience, self-knowledge, and personal ethics. The leader should be true to his self-invention. His approach came to be known as the humanistic, democratic style of leadership. According to Bennis such leaders are better suited to deal with the complexity and change that characterize the environment today. According to Bennis, experiencing struggle and hardship molds leaders (Bennis W, & Nannis B., 2004). For example, a person who has was in the military during a long drawn out war experiences struggle that is required for molding a leader. Bennis emphasized that even though people can learn to lead, they must learn something about the strange new world. He described leadership as elusive. Bennis admitted that leadership was hard to define and not understanding the meaning of leadership could deeply affect others.
    A leader in a military directly and strongly affected affects the lives of his troops. Often the decision of a leader in military has very strong consequences on the lives of others. According to Bennis, a leader is strongly self-aware (Bennis W, & Nannis B., 2004). A leader not only knows his strengths but also knows his weaknesses. The leader has his eye on the horizon, he sees the big picture, he wonders about everything, is willing to take risks, and is innovative. Continuing with the military example, the leader is open to adopting new methods that may bring victory to his army. According to Warren Bennis, leaders are made and are not born (Bennis W, & Nannis B., 2004).
    Management and Leadership
    Management and leadership are often as simultaneously and considered as the same thing, but they both are different from each other. Management comprises of getting the things done by others, and leadership comprises of making others to follow. They both share a common meaning, but the major difference between the both is that a manager cannot be a leader whereas a leader can be a manager as well. Management encompasses the planning, organizing, and directing activities whereas leadership involves taking initiative and motivating others to accomplish the task (Wart, 2005).
    Management is all about managing the tasks and activities; in the meanwhile, leadership focuses on leading people in an organization. Thus, tThey share the common objective of achieving goals, but the approach used by both makes them different from each other. Leadership involves management qualities in respect ofrelating to making others do activities whereas management may not necessarily involve leadership.
    When it comes to leading and managing the role of the leader, according to Richard Beckhard is to develop open communication, mutual trust, and confidence between and across levels. The leader must encourage participation by people in the planning and conduct of change. Victor Vroom model of leadership is a very flexible model. Its range is from highly dictatorial to democratic. The model provides a fixed procedure to arrive at a decision making process. From this perspective, Vroom's model is an objective decision making model. According to Vroom model one of the main tasks of leadership is to make good decisions.
    Leaders must determine the most efficient and effective means of reaching a decision (Vroom, V. H., & Jago, A. G., 1988). Making decisions by any leader will not be appropriate if the purpose is to get support from the team. Similarly, when there is shortage of time and resources, it is prudent for the leader to make decisions by him. In situations, when the leader has the best knowledge and information of the situation and the tasks are to be performed in a short period of time, the leader must make decisions by himself. In other situations participative styles are appropriate. From a different perspective, Vroom's model is a situational model of leadership. The best style of leadership depends on the situation. There is a range of situations that Vroom has described. He has described situations in terms of quality requirement, sufficiency of information, the structuring of the problem, acceptance of decision by subordinates, the sharing of organizational goals by subordinates, and the extent of conflicts among subordinates (Vroom, V. H., & Jago, A. G., 1988). According to Edgar Schein, there is an intrinsic relationship between leadership and culture. According to Schein leadership is the source of beliefs and values and the most central issue for leaders is to understand the deeper levels of culture (Schein, E. H, 1970). According to Edgar Schein there is no universally correct leadership. Different organizations have different cultures and leadership must be suitable for it. Leadership according to him can range from autocratic, paternalistic, consultative, participative, declarative, and abdicative (Schein, E. H, 1970). For example, a political party has a very different type of leadership when compared with a business organization in a Latin American country. Leadership is sought by group members because it helps reduce their anxiety. According to Edgar Schein, the leader must define concretely the change goal in terms of the problem that the leader is trying to fix. The leader will have enabled his people to unlearn the former way of working to learn a new one. The new cultural elements can only be learned if the new behavior leads to success and satisfaction (Schein, E. H, 1970).
    What Leaders Do
    Leadership is the practice of leading people and making them take the initiative in order to achieve the goals. A leader is the one, who influence other people and make them move in a common direction. He influences the internal environment of the organization and balances the external environment with the internal environment by adopting the changes. Leadership practices comprise of the behavior that a leader carries with him (Wart, 2005).
    According to Mouton and Blake there are five leadership styles. These are low results and low people or impoverished management style. The second is high results and low people style, which is produce or perish management style. The third is medium results and medium people or the middle of the road management style. The fourth is high people and low results management style or the country club management style. The fifth is high production and high people management style or the team style. These styles reflect what leaders do. I will strive to achieve high production and high people style in my career (1).

    In this essence, two models are being discussed so as to get a thorough knowledge of the leadership practices.Kouzes and Posner Leadership Practices state five practices that a leader has to follow, which includes modeling the way, inspiring and sharing the vision, accepting challenges, enabling others to act, and encouraging them. These practices help a leader to achieve the commitment and enhance the effectiveness (Kouzes, & Posner, 2014).
    Further, Robert Greenleaf's formulated the servant leadership practices, which suggest that a leader has to first serve the leader and then only lead them. This practice focuses on the well-being of other people so as to enhance the growth opportunities (Frick, 2004). Therefore, leadership practices involve the behavior with the help of which a leader is able to lead others.
    Richard Beckhard focused on leadership in the context of change in organizations. For a meaningful change in an organization, there must be a dissatisfaction with how things are now. The leader must show the vision of what is possible. He are she must communicate the vision, and illustrate it. A leader must show the first concrete steps that can be taken towards the vision (Beckhard, R. & Harris, R. T., 1977). According to Richard Beckhard if the product of these three factors is greater than resistance, then the leader can bring about the change. He gives this formula for change to leaders. From the point of view of a leader, according to Richard Beckhard, the basic building groups of an organization are groups. The leader must reduce inappropriate competition between parts of the organization and develop greater collaboration. The leader must locate decision making where the information sources are located (Beckhard, R. & Harris, R. T., 1977).
    Hofstede has developed cross-cultural leadership which has developed in a way that understands the newly globalized market. Hofstede's studies focus on leaders who can understand different environments quickly and work with partners and employees of other cultures. Hofstede also wants leaders to use different leadership styles in different cultures. He describes different leadership styles (Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J., & Minkov, M., 1991). These are paternalistic leadership, transformational leadership, transactional leadership. For example, a
    business leader must use a different style when he is leading in China when compared with the United States.
    In international business, culture has become very important. Cultural differences affect leadership behavior. According to Hofstede leaders can use the effect of organizational culture to direct subordinates to the highest level of motivation for accomplishing organizational goals (Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J., & Minkov, M., 1991). To compete in the global market, leaders must be able to manage recruitment, retention, regulation, policy, and procedure based on cultural issues. Organizations face problems because they have difficulty in developing trust among employees. It is not enough that leaders are aware of cultural differences in different countries.
    Thus, from the above discussion, it can be concluded that leadership is an important component of management style. Both the terms are different from each other, but the use of both can be made simultaneously. Leader, with the effective leadership behavior, can influence the behavior of his followers and, thereby, make them achieve the common tasks. Leadership is all about the behavior, which a leader carries and capable enough to make others take initiative. The leader is the one, who leads others and make others move in the same direction. The leaders must make the employees understand the cultural differences, make employees aware of culture differences, and change the culture to achieve organizational goals
    Chapter II. Leadership Theory:
    Leadership is an important concept that helps an organization to manage its work effectively. Leaders help in adding value to the company by motivating the employees to achieve the organizational objectives. In the competitive business environment, effective leadership has become an essential component for the success of the company. Leadership can be described as the process of persuasion through which a leader or leadership team stimulates the employees to pursue the goals shared by the leader and his followers (Sadler, 2003). In other words, leadership can be defined as an influencing process in which a leader gathers commitment from the followers and influences them to realize organizational goals. As per Truman, leadership can be described as the ability or quality to get the work done by others that is which may not be liked by them (Sadler, 2003). It is an ability or skill of an organization or individual to guide or lead others, teams or organizations.
    An organization to succeed in the competitive business environment requires effective leadership (Burns, 2012). Effective leadership will contribute in motivating the employees effectively that can help in the successful attainment of the organizational goals and objectives. A leader is a person that guides the team or other men to work and achieve the aims and objectives. Leadership can also be described as a constant process through which an individual derives results and optimum optimizes performance through the support of his followers, peers, superiors, and subordinates (Ray, 2013).
    In context to business, leadership is related to multidimensional aspects of management and administration. Leadership plays an important role in the survival and success of the organization. There are different types of leaders and leadership theories that can help an organization to reach the pinnacle of success. In context to this, various Lleadership theories are discussed in the following section, which includes situational leadership, transformational leadership, servant leadership and followership.
    Situational Leadership
    Situational leadership theory is the theory that defines says that in certain situations leaders ought to adopt particular leadership style because of the external and internal factors (Fairholm & Fairholm, 2009). In other words, leadership styles may differ in different situations, as specific behaviors are associates to specific situations. The situational theory proposes that situations are the defining factors that link the leaders' behaviors to their acts; it argues that leaders must do and behave in a certain manner as per the specific situation in hand (Fairholm & Fairholm, 2009).
    As per this theory, situational elements are the critical factors that define the behavior of the leaders. In context to of today's business environment, the situational theory is mostly used in training programs to train the leaders within organizations with the help of different situations (Northouse, 2012). The situational theory is perspective in nature, which implies that it tells what needs to be done and avoided in various contexts. Therefore, the situational theory can be practiced in the present business environment as it contributes the element of flexibility to leaders.
    However, the situational leadership fails to inform about the influence of certain demographic factors, such as age, gender, and experience, on the leader-subordinate interrelationship. For instance, female employees prefer supportive leadership, whereas, male employees prefer directive leadership. These factors are not considered in the model of situational leadership (Northouse, 2012).
    Transformation Leadership
    Transformational leadership is the process by which a leader gains commitment from employees and shares vision and values (Sadler, 2003). Transformational leadership theory proposes the idea of engaging and empowering others to pursue the collective objective and achieve the vision. This type of leadership influences both leaders and followers, as well as transforms them both to a higher level (Kelly & Tazbir, 2013). Transformational leaders are the leaders who motivate the employees by empowering them to contribute to work; they act as "agents of change" and converts followers into leaders. The elements of transformational leadership are inspiration and empowerment that lead to commitment in the followers/employees.
    In today's contemporary business environment, transformational leadership can prove to be effective as employees look for development and growth, which is rendered by transformational leaders. In the context of the business level, the theory of transformational leadership promotes innovation and change. Transformational leaders influence the identity of their followers and align the personal and organizational goals, thereby, enhancing employee commitment (Tourish, 2013). In the current business scenario, organizations require employee involvement and employee commitment to enhancing employees' performance, which in turn improves the overall performance of the organization. Therefore, transformational leadership is an effective theory that can help in improving organizational performance by achieving employee commitment.
    For the success of the transformational leadership style, a leader must be a visionary, who is influential and persuasive (Tourish, 2013). However, if the leader does not communicate effectively and enthusiastically, he will not be able to persuade people and heighten their interests, which will hinder the leader in modeling the desired behavior of employees. In addition, transformation leaders are the agents of change, if they indulge in any unethical behavior or immoral acts, it they may bring wrong changes in the organization (AdviseAmerica.com, 2016).
    Servant Leadership
    Servant leadership theory is an old philosophy proposed by Greenleaf in 1977 that has been practiced by various organizations from a very long time. The servant leadership theory proposes that leaders should be thoughtful and considerate to their followers and should share control with them (Northouse, 2012). Servant leadership focuses on the growth of the followers. This leadership theory is the only one that practices leadership around the belief of caring for followers or others. There are six components of servant leadership, which are develops people, values people, displays authenticity, provides leadership, builds community and shares leadership (Agnes, 2008).
    This type of leadership focuses on empowering the followers and considering the needs of the followers. The elements such as selfless acts, removal of pride, and serving the needs of followers are attributed to servant leadership theory. In context to of today's business environment, the servant leadership can help the leaders to understand the needs of followers and serve them irrespective of their position. Servant leadership theory can be used at each level of management in the enterprises (Northouse, 2012).
    However, the concept of servant leadership has its limitations. The theory of servant leadership is not a useful theory when there is a need forfor the objective is maximizing the short-term profits. The theory underestimated the impact of contextual factors that affect the performance. In addition to this, the theory is not well developed, and it requires rigorous empirical testing (Agnes, 2008).
    Followership theory can be described as the theory that highlights of the impact of followers on the leadership process (Archibald, 2015). It implies that the elements of followership are follower's role, following behaviors, and results of leadership or performance of followers. As per followership theory, the characteristics and behaviors of the followers must be conceptualized in regard to leadership process.
    The concept of followership has emerged as an important area of research in the leadership theories. It can beis defined as the process of guidance by leaders. Positive leadership focuses on developing the followers into leaders. Followers play an essential role in empowering the leader, constructing the leadership relationship and determining the results of this relationship (Hoption, 2014). A dynamic follower will showcase self-management and self-responsibility.
    Following can be defined as a specific form of behavior that legitimates legitimizes other's influence. Without followership, leadership cannot exist (Uhl-Bien et al., 2013). This theory helps in highlighting the role of followers in leadership process beyond the leader-centric views. In the present competitive business environment, it is important to know about the followers, their views, the following behavior, as it supports leadership and helps in managing the different operations of the company adequately. However, the term 'followers' is observed in a negative sense as the person lacks leadership quality; therefore, it becomes essential to visualize followers as an important component of the organization to recognize effective leadership.
    My philosophy has been influenced also by the Leader Member Exchange theory. According to this theory, the leader should not treat everyone in his team in the same way. The leaders must assess the skills of their new team members (2). This is called role taking. Next, the leaders develop expectations from new team members. The leaders expect them to work hard and be trustworthy. This is role making. Finally, routines between team members and their leaders are established. These are called routinization.

    In the above section, the concept of leadership is defined and described. In the similar context, different leadership theories and concepts are explained. The concepts of the different theories along with its implications and limitations are also discussed.
    Chapter III. Self as Leader
    Leadership is an important component in on which the success and failure of any organization depends on. Leadership style determines the way a leader influences or directs his or her subordinates to accomplish the given task. For the successful management of an organization, effective leadership is the prime requirement. In this essencecontext, the core values that guide the leadership practice applied by me in T-LJs Company are discussed in the following section. Effective leadership can be defined as an ability of the leader to integrate efficiently the available sources for the achievement of the organizational goals (Iqbal, 2011). As a leader, I have to guide the employees in my company T-LJs. I follow certain core values that guide my leadership practice.
    Congruent Leadership: As per my views, leadership is the way to leads people not just to manages them so I lead the way,and set the examples and manage my actions that will guide the employees to follow the same path in an efficient manner. I use my knowledge and rigorously improve my skills to lead effectively. Leadership deals with the behavior, abilities and skills of leaders and not their personality (The Leadership Challenge, 2016).
    Core Values
    Honesty and Trust: I value honesty and trust as an essential components that help in integrating different employees to work coherently. I generate create trust in my followers by being fair so they can openly discuss their issues, which provides me the opportunity to guide them and challenge them. An effective leadership accounts for the trust that converts into the dedication of employees towards work (Reese, 2015).
    Open Communication: I believe leaders are the directors, who lead the way, so for the purpose, it is essential to have open communication that helps in guiding the employees effectively. Receiving their suggestions, managing their concerns, and resolving any issues.
    Reliability and Responsibility: I value the commitment of my word so always try to take responsibility for the work and account for my commitments. I believe a reliable leader can make reliable employees. And also allow receive feedback from employees, take theconsider feedback into consideration when making changes to my company, office or section.
    Ethical Framework
    Ethical decision-making is an essential requirement for taking effective decisions and garnering getting the trust of employees. As a leader, I am responsible for the activities that take place in the office. Therefore, there is a need for ethical decision-making that helps me in guiding the employees ethically. A manager is held responsible for taking decisions for resolving the issues (Adeniyi, 2007). I value trust and honesty, which guide me in taking making fair and ethical decisions in critical situations. For this purpose, I follow the IDEA ethical framework as given below
    Identify the facts:
    In the first step, all the relevant facts and information in relation to the ethical issue are identified. The facts would determine the enormity of the ethical issue, which could be gathered from asking from the individuals involved in the issue and their immediate mangers.
    Determine the ethical principles: In this step, the ethical dilemma related to the issue is identified. The scope and nature of the activity or issue are is revealed in this step, as well as it is determined the facts are collected in an ethical manner or not. It helps in analyzing the way it affects the company goals and standards (Hayden, 2013).
    Explore the alternatives: In this step, I explore various alternatives that could help in resolving the issue. The benefits and limitations in relation to the issue are determined along with analyzing the best course of action that meets the company's standards (laws and policies) and my core values (trust, honesty, and reliability).
    Act on the situation: In the last step, I take the action that is best suitable as per the situation. The responsibility in relation to the decision is evaluated in this step, and the decision is openly communicated to all the employees. Key stakeholders are informed, and their consent is harnessed obtained (Trillium Health Partners, n.d.). I have employed this framework for resolving an ethical issue in my workplace in context to data privacy. In this situation, the ethical decision was taken to relieve the employee who was found in leaking important client data so that such incidences are not be repeated and strictly regulated in the future.

    Organizational Change Framework
    The organizational change framework is explained with the help of strategy or process that guides my leadership philosophy. This change framework helps in aligning the organizational work and yield effective leadership. In the organization, two types of changes can occur, which are episodic change and continuous change. Episodic change is infrequent, intentional and discontinuous, whereas, continuous change is evolving, continuous and increasing (Boonstra, 2008).
    As per the life-cycle theory of change by Van De Van and Poole, a company passes through a sequence of phases or stages and retains its identity (Burke, 2010). This theory describes change as a necessary step for progressing. As per the disequilibrium theory of Donaldson, change can be managed by SARFIT (Structural Adaptation to regain Fit) strategy. This theory states that fit and misfit states are the temporary states that interchange (Shani & Noumair, 2015). The organization will change from fit state to misfit state resulting in the reduction in the organizational performance. The structural changes can be adopted by the organization to achieve the fit state again. The self-design change strategy by Mohrman and Cummings states that the organization should implement and design various activities at multiple levels to help the company to adjust in turbulence turbulent environment interchange (Shani & Noumair, 2015). The strategy involves three steps namely laying the base, designing and finally implementing.
    In addition, Lewin proposed a three-step change process including unfreezing, changing or transition and freezing steps (Burke, 2010). In the unfreeze state, company dismantles the existing process, followed by transition phase where change occurs and finally freezing of the new change incorporated in the organizational working.
    As a leader, one of the organizational change frameworks that I will use is the McKinsey 7-S framework. As a leader it will help me analyze the hard elements namely strategy, structure, and systems. Also, it will enable me to understand the soft factors in my organization namely shared values, skills, style, and staff. I will use the McKinsey 7-S framework because it will help me analyze how well my organization is positioned to achieve its intended object. If I find my organization is lacking in some areas, the framework will provide me information about the changes I must bring to my organization (3).

    I have used the self-design change strategy to implement change in my organization by designing the new functions that can assist in functioning of the organization. My leadership style helps me in facilitating change with the help of self-design change strategy, which helps in implementing change at micro-level by designing the new functions as per the culture, work requirements, and technological advancements.
    Different self-assessment programs such as Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI), Parker Team Player, and DISC are reviewed. These assessments helped me in analyzing my leadership style. Self-assessment techniques help in analyzing the leadership style of a leader. For developing and empowering a leader, there is a need to assess and measure skills of a leader (The Leadership Challenge, 2016). In this context, LPI, DISC, and Parker Team Player can be applied to measure the skills. Kouzes and Posner identified five behaviors that augment effective leadership. As per LPI, I identified that I lead by example and attained higher scores in 'Model,' 'Challenge' and 'Enable' types of leadership practice. It helped me in understanding that I should lead by example and enable others to grow and provide them a challenging work environment which helps them in their progress. DISC (Dominant, Influence, Steady, and Conscientious) model helps in personal assessment so as to analyze the factors that require improvement (DiscProfile, 2010).
    As per DISC assessment, I observed that I am a good listener, talkative, persuasive, dependable, organized and systematic individual. As perAccording to the Parker Team Player assessment, I analyzed observed that I am a communicator and effectively listens to other person's views and encourage others to participate. I also monitored the qualities of a challenger, as I am candid, honest and encourage team members to work cohesively. I encourage my followers to follow ethicals standards so as to evaluate future leaders, but I require being less persuasive.
    Leadership helps in managing the team and various functions in the organization to facilitate its smooth functioning. Leadership styles differ as per the situations to accommodate change, monitor ethics, and employ strategies and processes. In this context, the following section summarizes the concept of leadership. Leadership styles and practices differ from person to person and from situation to situation. In the field of management, leadership is an important concept. It is the way by which leaders guide or lead the employees or followers. There are different styles of leadership and different theories of leadership such as trait theory and situational theory that help in defining the way different leaders guide their ways (Sandler, 2003).
    Leadership assessment tools like LPI, DISC and Parker Team Player, different attributes, and abilities of a leader can be measured. In this context,Using these tools, I found that I am a leader who acts as the model of change and my qualities such as active listening and ethics helps in building trust in my followers. As per my views,I feel leadership is a process that helps in formulating future leaders by encouraging others and leading the way.
    Chapter IV. Leadership in Context:
    Description of Situation
    As a leader, it becomes essential to analyze the situation and issues for making an effective decision in relation to the organization. Leaders need to have the knowledge and analytical skills to understand the rationale reason behind any situation for providing an adequate solution. In this chapter I will elaborate on some of my leadership challenges and accomplishments that I have experience in my career and in my small business. As per my views, leadership is a way of leading people by example. There are a different situations when a leader has to behave and react in a different manners as peraccording to the situation. Every situation requires different management as peraccording to the assessment of the leader. In this context, I have described a situation faced by me in T-LJs. T-LJs operates in real estate industry, where I worked as the executive manager. The company was relatively new, so I was given the charge to develop and handle a team of 4-5 members. During my tenure, I observed two major challenging situations that are described below.
    Analysis of Situation
    The first challenge that I observed was the problem in retaining and hiring skilled employees for sales and marketing department as the company is relatively new in the real-estate sector. The company was not interested in giving adequate pay structure to the employees as compared to other competitors. The company was also not adequately focusing on the mode of recruitment. The hiring of new sales team was crucial for the development and survival of the company.
    The second challenge was the culture of the company. The team consisted of employees from the cross-cultural background and there existed disconcert among employees due to cultural barriers that affected the workflow of the company. The cultural barriers hindered in generating a cohesive environment in the company, which sometimes created situations of disharmony and aggressive behavior.
    Systems Perspective
    System thinking or perspective is that discipline of management that focuses on understanding a system by exploring the interconnections between different components that compose the entire system or organization (The Institute for Systematic Leadership, 2016). As per the systems perspective, the two critical situational challenges that I faced during my professional career are interrelated, as both challenges comprised of the same component that is human resources that affected the work flow of the company. The perspective system advocates that there are different explanations for any complex situation (Senge, 2010). Therefore, as per system perspective, the issue of retaining and hiring employees is due to the old methods of hiring and retaining employees. The disharmony among the employees is due to the less lower focus on engaging employees and the hurdle in the communication among the employees. The systems perspective identifies the interconnection between the patterns of behavior (Senge, 2010). Hence, the two challenges showcase that the culture of an organization is not supportive that hinders the employees to work cohesively.
    Organizational Behavior Perspective
    Organizational behavior is that study which examines the impact of groups, individuals, and structures on the behavior within a company so as to apply this information for enhancing the organization's effectiveness (French, 2011). As per the perspective of organization behavior, the structure and culture are the main important features that help in analyzing any situation in any company. In the chosen company, the culture and structure have certain issues that raised such challenges for me. The structure of the company did not allow using other methods for hiring, as well as new methods for motivating and engaging employees. The culture of the company was not supportive of the employees from different cultural backgrounds faced difficulty in connecting and communicating with each other that created situation of disconcerting. The feedback system, open communication system, and engagement activities can help in enhancing the culture as well retaining the employees.
    From the perspective of organizational behavior, I learned that as a leader, I must behave in a manner that is helpful in achieving the goals of my organization. The behavior of a leader is all the more important, because it affects the outcomes of a team or an organization. My behavior as a leader must change from situation to situation, from team to team, and from person to person. Using appropriate behavior in my opinion is an important challenge for the leader.
    The organizational development perspective is that the leader should continually expand the knowledge and effectiveness of his team to accomplish more and improve performance. By using the McKinsey 7-S framework, I will continually improve the performance of my organization, examine the possible effect of future changes within my company, align departments and processes if there is an acquisition, and develop the most effective implementation plan for the organizational strategy. I will use this model to teams as well as to projects under my leadership. In the past the organizational development perspective has helped me form effective teams, provide leadership to teams, and realize synergies among team members (4). The effect has been improved performance and greater efficiency.

    Organizational development is an important process that focuses on planning for improvement of the overall organizational functioning and transferring change in an efficient manner (Bush &Marshak, 2015). In order to focus on organizational development to resolve these challenges, the change process as per my leadership philosophy focuses on self-design strategy with the help of Lewin's three-step process. The self-design strategy has helped me in facilitating structural change in the hiring process and employee engagement activities, which will assist me in handling the hiring issues, retaining issues, employee disconcert, and communication issues. I designed a new hiring process that included multiple modes of recruitment such as hiring from educational institutes, employment agencies, advertisements and employee referral.
    For retaining skilled employees, changes in the pay structure and promotions to the deserving employees have been designed. To improve team spirit and cohesion among employees, employee engagement activities have been organized, which not only help in engaging employees in their work but also provided a great way to improve their interaction. Certain training in relation to improvement in soft skills and communication skills were also provided that contained information about different cultures as well to acknowledge the employees about the customs in different cultures. In addition, feedbacks from employees are also taken to improve their morale and retain skilled employees. For making employees attend these activities and receive their undivided participation, I also took part in these activities to motivate employees to adapt to these changes.
    Leadership is a style of management that assists in handling overcoming different situational challenges. In the section given below, the conclusion to the overall situational analysis along with developing a strategy to resolve these issues. This situational analysis helped me in understanding the different challenges that can be faced by a leader. As a leader, in the given situation, I faced challenges in relation to retaining, hiring, improving cohesion and communication among employees. With the help of systematic perspective and organizational behavior perspective, I came to analyze the main fundamentals behind these challenges that helped me in designing change strategy for advocating organizational development. Organizational development perspective helped me in strategically facilitating change in the company, which will always benefit my leadership philosophy. Organization behavior perspective helped in analyzing the structure and culture of the organization, which helps in understanding the way to motivate employees.
    Chapter V. Final Thoughts
    Essence or Major Cornerstones
    Leadership is a philosophy that helps a leader in managing influencing his employees and handling improving the overall work-flow in an organization. The section given below will highlight my leadership philosophy, major cornerstones of my leadership philosophy, the evolution of my thinking and summary of the paper.
    Leadership is empowering others so that they can take relevant decisions that contribute to the development of the future leaders (Byrne, n.d.). Leadership is an essential component to facilitate organizational development, and it plays a crucial role in handling different situations. A leadership philosophy is quite dissimilar from the definition of leadership as philosophy concentrates on the way one uses the concepts and theories, whereas, definition simply details the elementary characteristics. A leadership philosophy helps in setting guidelines and standards for the employees at each level (Mito, 2013). I believe that a leader needs to have certain knowledge, skills, values and beliefs to guide others effectively. My leadership philosophy can be better understood with the help of cornerstones that helped me in guiding my employees and followers. The cornerstones can be described as the major beliefs and values that assist a leader in leading thefollowers. My cornerstones are integrity, shared vision, congruence, and sociability.
    Integrity covers trust and honesty, which are my core values. Integrity can be defined as the internal status of an individual that guides him/her to make ethical choices (Killinger, 2010). Integrity implies that any act must be done with honesty and truthfulness. As per my leadership philosophy, an individual should accomplish the work with complete honesty that helps in developing the trust factor, which in turn is an essential ingredient in developing cohesion among employees.
    Evolution of Thinking
    Shared vision is an essential component to for getting the employees to accomplish the task. I believe that if employees are effectively communicated about the vision, they contribute their energy towards the accomplishment of the task. Vision should be shared with the employees as it helps in taking the right efforts to achieve it. The employees should be treated as partners in the success of the company, which will help in improving their productivity. A shared vision helps in developing organizational commitment and unifying the team. My leadership philosophy is based on shared vision as it unites the team to achieve the task.
    Congruent leadership is also a cornerstone of my leadership philosophy as it guides me to set an example in front of my employees so that they can follow the path in the right manner. It also helps me in taking the responsibility for the work, which helps me in advocating the same to my employees. Congruent leadership is founded on the values, beliefs and principles a leader stands for (Holland & Roberts, 2013). This cornerstone ignites my passion for care and helps me in empowering others.
    A good leader is able to indulge in open communication with his employees and associate with them sociably. Sociability is another cornerstone as it assists me in making a pleasantdeveloping good relationships with the employees. Leadership is not only task-oriented, but it is also relationship oriented as it also generates affection, acceptance, belongingness, and friendship (Bass & Bass, 2009). I believe that an effective leader needs to address the social needs of the employees to gain their commitment, trust, and affection.
    My thinking has changed in several ways since I have been on this learning journey. Initially, I was attracted to the humanistic values in leadership. I believed in increasing trust among my team members and boosting their enthusiasm. Later, I felt that my concern for team members should also be matched with concern for team goals and objectives. I must ensure that tasks were achieved. I also realized that the path for the leader was not easy; there would be strong resistance to change. My thoughts evolved, being a good leader was not enough, I must collect information about the performance of my team members and information about the environment. I must be able to match the skills and abilities of my people with the opportunities in the environment. I realized that there were several tasks that the leader had to do. He had to set goals, plan, build his team, and motivate his team to achieve the goals (5). I learned that as a leader, I had my own prejudices, biases, and shortcomings. I should work on improving my own self so that I become a better person and an effective leader. My thinking has changed. Teams are not randomly made. These are created by selecting the persons with right skills and abilities. The team members should also have the right temperament. The evolution of my thinking about leadership has been dramatic. Before I began the course, I had the image of a leader as someone who spoke eloquently on the platform or the TV. Later I realized that leadership meant balancing the needs of the team members and achieving the goals of the team. I also realized that leadership was about using my power judiciously. My thoughts evolved further during the course. Leadership was about developing the method of achieving goals, forming teams and organizational structure, and putting in place systems that would help achieve the goals. Yes, even now I agree that the leader must motivate his followers, communicate the vision to them, and inculcate shared values. Now, I know that being a successful team leader also means ensuring that the right skills are with the team members. I have also learned that there are several leadership styles and these must be used appropriately. Successful leadership also means getting the right persons into the organization. It also relates to correct selection of team members, inculcating the right values, and developing a culture that will lead to success.

    I believe that my professional career has helped me in growing personally and professionally. I have observed the evolution of my thinking and leadership strategies. At the start of my leadership journey, I assessed what leadership truly means. Initially, I was inexperienced in this domain area but with the passage of time, I learned various approaches and theories of leadership along with this, I developed my skills, traits, and style of leadership. I developed the foundation of my leadership through my experience. During my journey, I learned various theories of leadership such as situational leadership, transformational leadership, servant leadership and followership.
    I also developed my core values, with the help of which I was able to develop my ethical framework. I prioritized on trust and honesty, reliability and responsibility, and open communication that helped me in taking ethical decisions. Ethics help in resolving the issue in an efficient manner. The systems perspective, organizational behavior perspective, and organizational development perspective helped me in analyzing any situation and reflective actions that are beneficial to both the employees and the organization.
    Leadership is a management philosophy that guides the actions of a leader, which in turn affect the actions of his followers and the functioning of an organization. I believe that leadership is an ongoing process, and a leader throughout his profession learns different aspects of leadership. With the passage of time, I managed to understand the culture and dynamics of an organization that facilitated me I taking responsible decisions for the organizational development. On the basis of my journey, I can summarize leadership is an act of leading others by through guidance and example.

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    Management & Leadership:
    The key difference between management and leadership is the manner in which they motivate the people in the organization. Most managers have an element of leadership in them and leaders have an element of management in them. They are however distinguished in several ways. Managers have subordinates whereas leaders have followers. Managers use an authoritarian style, have transactional leadership, and are focused on tasks (1). They are risk averse and avoid conflicts. In contrast, leaders are charismatic, have a people focus, and use a transformational style of leadership. They actively seek risks. An observation has shown that a large number of leaders had some handicap in their lives which they had to overcome.

    Managers have skills which are important for their roles. They must be able to execute a vision. They have the ability to divide the vision and create a plan with it. They can also efficiently direct day-to-day work, control resources required, and anticipate the needs of the people. They are also competent in setting work rules, standards of quality/performance, operating procedures, and improving processes. Managers are also people oriented, look after their people, listen to them, and involve them in decision making.

    In contrast leaders have skills of developing a vision. They are able to communicate the vision to their followers, persuade them, and inspire them to follow the vision. Leaders uphold high standards of honesty and integrity. They have the ability to convey the overall goal and objectives to their followers so that the team gets inspired to achieve their goals. Leaders are known to have the ability to challenge the status quo (2). They adopt strategies that are different. For example, Sam Walton used the strategy of cost leadership to grow. They have the courage to think creatively. Most important they have the ability to communicate with their team. They share the vision, communicate the strategy, and discuss bottlenecks that are impeding the achievement of their vision.
    This leads to differences observed between managers and leaders. Leaders initiate changes. They innovate and are creative. In contrast, managers react to change. If there is increase in competition, they take steps to protect the market share of the company. If there is technological innovation, the manager keeps his organization abreast of the latest technology. The managers also have good ideas and creative thoughts. The key difference is that leaders implement good ideas. Managers communicate their plans to their people. In contrast leaders persuade their followers to take up serious challenges. They persuade their followers to make efforts far in excess of their capacity. They have the ability to persuade their followers to stretch themselves and achieve difficult goals. In the process of persuading their followers, the leaders create teams and openly appreciate people around them. They make others feel great, inspired, and energized. In contrast, the managers create groups of people with relevant skills, take credit for what the groups do, and remain focused on the task at hand. Managers use the powers they have been give with the people they work for. In contrast, leaders influence people without explicit use of power.

    What leaders do?
    Servant Leadership:
    One important insight into what leaders do is the servant leadership style. The leaders serve the group first and a policy maker second. He does not jump into disciplining his followers. Servant leaders are democratic leaders and as such there is not much alienation among employees. The servant leadership style serves each member of the group. Such a leader accommodates diversity in the workforce with ease. He uses personalized management for each member. What the servant leader does is that he involves employees in decision making. This increases his moral standing with the employees. He looks to the needs of the employees and helps them in career development and maintaining work-home life balance. This helps him develop a strong loyalty from the employee to the company. He gives consideration to all opinions and inputs from employees. He helps improve the feeling of teamwork ...

    Solution Summary

    The answer to this problem explains important issues relating to leadership. The references related to the answer are also included.