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    Evolving Leadership Models and Theories

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    Recent theoretical developments in leadership paradigms seem more inclined to frame leadership concepts within the context of moral philosophy, interpersonal growth and spiritual values, topics discussed in business leadership models. Some examples include transformational leadership (Burns, 1978; Bass, 1990), Servant-Leadership (Greenleaf, 1977), Relational Leadership (Brower, Schoorman, & Hwee, 2000) and Spiritual Leadership (Vail, 1998).

    Conduct a preliminary search of these models, and select one that resonates best with your own leadership style. Using the business article search engines in the Cybrary and other credible sources, respond to the following questions regarding the model you have selected:

    Select two and compare and contrast these two models, with particular emphasis on the implications of these models for the leader follower-relationship and the organizational culture.

    To what degree do these models represent a theory that is grounded in experience or fact, or just a "fad"? Defend your arguments with academic sources.

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    Let us first discuss Transformational Leadership:

    The ethics of leadership rests upon three pillars: (1) the moral character of the leader, (2) the ethical values embedded in the leader's vision, articulation, and program which followers either embrace or reject, and (3) the morality of the processes of social ethical choice and action that leaders and followers engage in and collectively pursue. Such ethical dimensions of leadership have been widely acknowledged (Wren, 1996; Kouzes & Posner,1993; Greenleaf, 1977). Transformational leaders set examples to be emulated by their followers. And as suggested by Burns (1978) and demonstrated by Dukerich, Nichols, et al (1990) when leaders are more morally mature, those they lead display higher moral reasoning.

    Transformational leadership contains contains four components: charisma or idealized influence (attributed or behavioral), inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration (Bass, 1985, 1998, Bass & Avolio, 1993). Shamir, House and Arthur (1993) and Conger and Kanungo (l988) conceive of the same components as all falling under the category of charismatic leadership.

    Followers identify with the charismatic leaders' aspirations and want to emulate the leaders. If the leadership is transformational, its charisma or idealized influence is envisioning, confident, and sets high standards for emulation. Its inspirational motivation provides followers with challenges and meaning for engaging in shared goals and undertakings. Its intellectual stimulation helps followers to question assumptions and to generate more creative solutions to problems. Its individualized consideration treats each follower as an individual and provides coaching, mentoring and growth opportunities (Bass, 1985). If such transformational leadership is authentic, it is characterized by high moral and ethical standards in each of the above dimensions.

    Authentic transformational leadership provides a more reasonable and realistic concept of self -- a self that is connected to friends, family, and community whose welfare may be more important to oneself than one's own One's moral obligations to them are grounded in a broader conception of individuals within community and related social norms and cultural beliefs.

    Transformational leadership is predicated upon the inner dynamics of a freely embraced change of heart in the realm of core values and motivation, upon open-ended intellectual stimulation and a commitment to treating people as ends not mere means. To bring about change, authentic transformational leadership fosters the modal values of honesty, loyalty and fairness and the end values of justice, equality, and human rights.

    True transformational leaders identify the core values and unifying purposes of the organization and its members, liberate their human potential, and foster pluralistic leadership and effective, satisfied followers.

    Rather than being immoral, ...