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Microbiology Study Questions

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21. Explain the purpose of Bergey's Manual and differentiate the types.
22. Describe how staining and biochemical tests are used to identify bacteria.
23. Differentiate between Western blotting and Southern blotting.
24. Explain how serological tests and phage typing can be used to identify an unknown organism.
25. Describe how a new bacterium can be classified by the following molecular methods: DNA base composition, rRNA sequencing, DNA fingerprinting, PCR, and nucleic acid hybridization.
26. Describe the defining characteristics of cyanobacteria, fungi, platyhelminths, cestodes, houseflies, algae, archaezoa, microspora, yeasts, helminths, protozoa
27. Differentiate between an intermediate host and a definitive host and give an example of what parasite stage is seen in humans as intermediate and definitive hosts.
28. Describe the defining characteristics of Bacteroides, Thiobacillus, Bacillales, Neisseria, Pseudomonas.
29. Differentiate between a tick and a mosquito, and name a disease transmitted by each.
30. Discuss the relationship of DNA- and RNA-containing viruses to cancer.

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21. Explain the purpose of Bergey's Manual and differentiate the types.

Bergey's Manual is used to classify the bacteria based on the observable constitution of an organism, known as phenotypic. This manual is used as a guide in the bio-medical bacteria related treatment. This classifies the bacteria by the following categories based on,

- bacteria's body shape
- wall structure of the bacteria cell and its gram stain
- respiration of bacteria's respiration system
- bacteria growth factor

22. Describe how staining and biochemical tests are used to identify bacteria.

Bacteria can be identified by many different methodologies - one of these popular methods is know as "Gram Stain". This has two types of calcifications - gram positive and gram negative. Gram positive bacteria appear in purple color when dyed, while the gram negative bacteria appear in red color in the second dye process.

23. Differentiate between Western blotting and Southern blotting.

Western blotting: Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) method is used to separate the proteins usually. Proteins are identified by antibodies of the cell. This is widely used to get protein information, size and modification.

Southern blotting: This method is used to identify the specific DNA from complex mixture components. This can make the DNA single stranded by soaking the DNA in the alkaline solution.

24. Explain how serological tests and phage typing can be used to identify an unknown organism.

Serological tests are a preferred ...

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Microbiology Study Questions

1. Clostridium and Streptococcus are both catalase-negative. Streptococcus grows by fermentation. Why is Clostridium killed by oxygen, whereas Streptococcus is not?

2. Assume that after washing your hands, you leave ten bacteria cells on a new bar of soap. You then decide to do a plate count of the soap after it was left in the soap dish for 24 hours. You dilute 1g of the soap 1:106 and plate it on standard plate count agar. After 24 hours of incubation, there are 168 colonies. How many bacteria were on the soap? How did they get there?

3. Why is each of the following bacteria often resistant to disinfectants?
1. Mycobacterium
2. Pseudomonas
3. Bacillus

4. Explain why gram-negative bacteria are more resistant to biocides than gram-positive bacteria. Be specific and descriptive in your response. A description of the differences between gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria should be included, along with an explanation of why any of those differences would have anything to do with the actions of biocides.

5. Ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and acyclovir are used to treat microbial infections. Ciprofloxacin inhibits DNA gyrase. Erythromycin binds in front of the A site on the 50S subunit of a ribosome. Acyclovir is a guanine analog.
1. What steps in protein synthesis are inhibited by each drug?
2. Which drug is more effective against bacteria? Why?
3. Which drug is more effective against viruses? Why?
4. Which drugs will have effects on the host's cells? Why?
5. Use the index to identify the disease for which acyclovir is used. Why is it more effective than erythromycin for treating this disease?

6. Design an experiment using the vaccinia virus to make a vaccine against AIDS virus (HIV).

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