Our patient, a 45-year old former tennis player, has been recommended for right knee-replacement surgery. Let's discuss the characteristics of the knee which makes this joint so susceptible to injury! Let's also add a focus on the specific muscles used. Where these isotonic contractions or isometric?© BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com September 23, 2018, 3:58 pm ad1c9bdddf - https://brainmass.com/biology/human-anatomy-and-physiology/knee-joint-injury-health-science-students-476147
From the image supplied, the cause for knee replacement surgery for this tennis player is definitely osteoarthritis. You can tell by looking at the surface of the femoral condyles. Note how the bone is roughened and will not provide a smooth articulating surface with the tibial plateau. Because of this osteoarthritis, there will be pain and decreased mobility in the knee joint.
The scope of osteoarthritis is rather gradual. It begins as the smooth, slippery surface of the articular cartilage begins to wear down. This causes there to be less space in the knee joint. The cartilage becomes more and more thin over time, and as a result the bones (the femur in this case) begin to become thicker and more irregular, forming bone spurs. There is often swelling in the knee because of increased synovial fluid (also called water on the knee). Eventually, the cartilage may degenerate to the point of bone on bone contact. As you can imagine this would be very, very painful. ...
This response includes over 600 words specific to injuries of the knee joint. There is a diagnosis relevant to images included in the case study.