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Knee and Shoulder Joints

PowerPoint consisting of 15 slides,
1) Introduce the anatomy of the knee and shoulder joints (articulating surfaces of bone).
2) Discuss the anatomy of the knee and shoulder. Include labels of:
Knee

The ligaments ACL, MCL, PCL, LCL, (LABEL WITH THE FULL NAMES) the menisci
The muscles that cross the knee joint: the quadriceps (label all four) and the hamstrings (label all three)
Shoulder

glenoid labrum
bursa and tendon sheath
rotator cuff muscles
rotator cuff ligaments
the major muscles that cross the shoulder to move the humerus: deltoid, pectoralis major, and trapezius
3) Label the tendons, ligaments, and/or internal joint structures that are commonly damaged and what motions cause that damage.

4) Provide examples of therapies used to treat those injuries.

Solution Preview

Slide 1

Definition:

- Knee joint ( tibiofemoral joint) is the largest and most complex joint of the body, consisting of three joints within a single synovial cavity.
o 1. Laterally: tibiofemoral joint is between the lateral condyle of the femur, lateral meniscus, and lateral condyle of the tibia. It is a modified hinge joint.
o 2. Medially: tibiofemoral joint is between the medial condyle of the femur, medial meniscus, and medial condyle of the tibia. It is also a modified hinge joint.
o 3. Intermediate patellofemoral joint is between the patella and the patellar surface of the femur. It is a planar joint.

Slide 2

Anatomical Components

1. Articular capsule - No complete, independent capsule unites the bones of the knee joint. The ligamentous sheath surrounding the joint consists mostly of muscle tendons or their expansions. There are capsular fibers connecting the articulating bones.
2. Medial and lateral patellar retinacula- Fused tendons of insertion of the quadriceps femoris muscle and the fasica lata ( deep fascia of thigh) that strengthen the anterior surface of the joint.
3. Patellar ligament - Continuation of the common tendon of insertion of the quadriceps femoris muscle that extends from the patella to the tibial tuberosity. This ligament also strengthens the anterior surface of the joint. The posterior surface of the ligament is separated from the synnovial membrane of the joint by an infrapatellar fat pad.

Slide 3

Anatomical Components Continue

4. Oblique popliteal ligament - Broad, flat ligament that extends from the intercondylar fossa of the femur to the head of the tibia. The tendon of the semimembranous muscle is superficial to the ligament and passes from the medial condyle of the tibia to the lateral condyle of the femur. The ligament and tendon strengthen the posterior surface of the joint.
5. Arcuate popliteal ligament - Extends from the lateral condyle of the femur to the styloid process of the head of the fibula. It strengthens the lower lateral part of the posterior surface of the joint.

Slide 4
Anatomical Components Continue

6. Tibial collateral ...

Solution Summary

Knee joint ( tibiofemoral joint) is the largest and most complex joint of the body, consisting of three joints within a single synovial cavity. Knee joint is a synovial joint. Shoulder joint is a ball and socket joint formed by the head of the humerus and the glenoid cavity of the scapula. Both of these joints provide movement necessary for our everyday life. We will explore the anatomical components of these two joints and elucidate how they function in locomotion.

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