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Effects of Pronation on Knee Injury Risk

Please read this articles both are critical for the discussion on the topic on Effects of Pronation on Knee Injury Risk.

Read the articles from:
a) Powers 2003
b) Shultz 2006

In a 1-page document,(essay type) describe how the inability to control forefoot pronation during functional tasks may increase injury risk to the knee and reduce optimal athletic performance. Please be sure to detail specific relationships of muscle, joint and nervous system as you describe this common (and complex) biomechanical model.

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The two articles are somewhat complicated, so it is important to take time to read them two or three times to understand what the authors are saying. Let's look at how the two articles add to the discussion, which you can then draw on for your final 1-page document. I described the studies of Powers (1003) and Schultz et al (2006) in more detail than perhaps necessary, but it is important to understand the theory behind the studies, as well as how they did the studies to get the results they did. I also provided some definitions, first, as a backdrop for the response.

Let's take a closer look.

1. In a 1-page document,(essay type) describe how the inability to control forefoot pronation during functional tasks may increase injury risk to the knee and reduce optimal athletic performance. Please be sure to detail specific relationships of muscle, joint and nervous system as you describe this common (and complex) bio-mechanical model.

Lets' get some definitions out of way first.

Pronation describes a slight inward rolling motion the foot makes during a normal walking or running stride. The foot (and ankle) will role slightly inward to accommodate movement. Some people, however, over-pronate and roll more than normal. With over-pronation, the arch of the foot flattens and causes excessive stress and pressure on the soft tissues of the foot. Over-pronation is more common in those with flat feet, and can lead to foot aches and pain, such as plantar fasciitis, Shin Splints and Knee Pain. (1)

Conversely, supination describes an excessive outward rolling motion the foot and ankle during a walking or running stride. This motion can place extra stress on the foot. Supination is more common in those with flat feet and can lead to foot aches and pain, such as Iliotibial Band Syndrome,[Plantar Fasciitis, Shin Splints and Knee Pain. (2) The events of the foot that occur during the stance phase of the gait cycle may be divided into three periods. The first period is described as the loading period and begins with the first contact of the foot with the running surface. Runners that have a heel-toe style of running, usually initiate running surface contact with the heel. In contrast forefoot runners usually make initial contact with the running surface with the front of the foot. (2)

Gait has two phases: stance (60% of cycle; foot flat, heel off, toe off) and swing (40% of cycle; toe off/toe clear/heel strike). During walking one foot is always on the ground. In running both feet are off the ground at one point in the stride. The weight is borne from the heel, along the lateral border of the sole then inward across the metatarsal heads from the fifth to the 1st MTP joint. Stability is gained by the talar mortise and ligament support. The subtalar joint functions like a hinge and allows eversion and ...

Solution Summary

Provides a summary of the two articles as they relate to the topic of how the inability to control forefoot pronation during functional tasks may increase injury risk to the knee and reduce optimal athletic performance.

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