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Genetically modified organisms (GMO)

Pros and Cons of GMO Technology

Pros: Genetically Modified Organisms(GMO) can benefit and contribute to medicine in many ways. For example, there are genetically modified microorganisms that can make human insulin to treat diabetic patients. (3) There are genetically modified bacteria that can be used to clean toxic fuel and waste spills in the ocean. (4) Genetically modified plants are created to increase crop yields, reduced the need for pesticides, enabled pests and disease resistance to plants, and improve medical benefits. (4) Genetically engineered plants can allow them to grow faster, and resist most of the environmental elements, such as drought, frost, and other environmental factors. Other benefits of GMO are in the animals because fish like salmons have been genetically engineered to grow larger and faster. (4) Cattles have been genetically modified to exhibit resistance to mad cow disease. (4) Pharmaceuticals industry used geneticall modified organisms to make the first protein called the human growth hormone, which have been genetically engineered in plants. (4) Genetically modified animals are used to carry human genes that allow the study of them and their application to diseases. (4)
Other benefits of GMOs are to improve better taste, allowed faster outputs, and increased nutrients. (5) Farmers can also grow more crops on less land. (5) Farmers can produce more crops, such as genetically modified rice that have more vitamin A in them. (5 )Genetically modified rice can reduce vitamin A deficiency. (5)

Cons:

There are disadvantage of introducing a new "expressed gene to change the natural state of an organisms." (4) The introduction of a foreign new gene to alter the natural genetic makeup of an organism can change the "organism's growth rate, metabolism, and response to external environmental factors." (4) The consequences of introducing a new gene to the organism can change the organisms itself and the natural environment in which the organism is allowed to live. (4) Human can be at risk of GMOs because the transfer of new modified gene to foods that we eat can introduce new harmful genes that make our system reject them. (4) For example, the "genetically modified Bt corn that expressed the protein from bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis", which is toxic to insects such as the caterpillar. The Bt corn that expresses this protein had reduced the amount of pesticides applied to the crops. But, the seeds of the corns containing the protein spread the recombinant genes to other nontarget plants and introduce toxic effects. The recombinant gene in bacteria such as E. coli can infect human and cause serious diseases. For example, the bacteria E.coli that carry "the tumor inducing gene from a virus" had infected human causing the disease. (4)

Solution Preview

What is GMO?

Genetically modified organisms or GMO are animals/plants that are generated by the technique of alternative gene splicing or cutting that fused genetic materials, such as DNA from different species, creating new combinations of plants, animals, and bacteria genes that are not present in nature. (1) In another word, when a gene from one organism is transfer into another organism in order to improve the genotype or phenotype of the new organism, the result of the new organism is the genetically modified organism (GMO). (2) The genetically modified organisms (GMO) is also called a "transgenic" organisms. Transgenic means the "transfer of genes". (2)

When was it introduced

In 1973, Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen introduced recombinant DNA technology when they cut a bacteria plasmid using restriction enzymes and insert new segment of DNA into the gap. (3) They actually insert a "segment of frog DNA into a bacteria", and proved that genes from different organisms can be mixed together. (3) Hence, recombinant DNA technology was invented. (3)

Where did this technology stem from?

This technology came from the "traditional selective breeding" in plants and animals when "a desired trait is chosen and bred to produce more plants with the desirable trait" . (2) The process of "traditional selective breeding" when one desired trait is bred to produce new plants is modified in the laboratory to produce a new technique called genetic engineering, where "genes that express the desired trait is physically moved or added to a new plant or animal to improve the genetic trait in that plant or animal. " (2) The process of "selective breeding" can improve a new organism or group of organism. However, the process of "selective breeding" often take a long time to do, and it is not possible to know which genes were transferred to the offspring. In "selective breeding," the whole genome is transferred to the new offspring.(3) In selective breeding, there is a limitation because genes from two different species cannot be mix and breed. The process of genetic engineering started when Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen used ...

Solution Summary

Genetically modified organisms or GMO are animals/plants that are generated by the technique of alternative gene splicing or cutting that fused genetic materials, such as DNA from different species, creating new combinations of plants, animals, and bacteria genes that are not present in nature. (1) In another word, when a gene from one organism is transfer into another organism in order to improve the genotype or phenotype of the new organism, the result of the new organism is the genetically modified organism (GMO). (2) The genetically modified organisms (GMO) is also called a "transgenic" organisms. Transgenic means the "transfer of genes". (2) In 1973, Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen introduced recombinant DNA technology when they cut a bacteria plasmid using restriction enzymes and insert new segment of DNA into the gap. (3) This technology came from the "traditional selective breeding" in plants and animals when "a desired trait is chosen and bred to produce more plants with the desirable trait" . (2) The process of "traditional selective breeding" when one desired trait is bred to produce new plants is modified in the laboratory to produce a new technique called genetic engineering, where "genes that express the desired trait is physically moved or added to a new plant or animal to improve the genetic trait in that plant or animal. " (2) The process of "selective breeding" can improve a new organism or group of organism. Here we will review the current technique of traditional selective breeding.

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