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    Recombination in bacteria and in viruses that infect bacteria.

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    Four E. coli strains of genotype a+ b- are labeled 1,2,3 and 4. Four strains of genotype a- b+ are labeled 5,6,7, and 8. The two genotypes are mixed in all possible combinations and (after incubation) plated to determine the frequency of a+ b+ recombinants. The following results were obtained, where M = many recombinants, L = low numbers of recombinants, and O = no recombinants.

    -----1----2----3---4
    ----------------------
    5--O-M--M--O
    6--O---M--M--O
    7--L----O--O--M
    8--O---L-L---O

    On the basis of these results, assign a sex type (either Hfr, F+, or F-) to each of the strains.

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    The expert examines recombination in bacteria and in viruses that inject bacteria.

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