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Fungi, Candida infections and Athlete's Foot.

3.Some fungi have played very prominent roles in history. Write a paragraph (250 words approx) about each of the following events. Identify the fungus involved
a. Irish Potato Famine
b. Witches of Salem

4.Candida (yeast) infections often occur when an individual is taking antibiotics. Explain why this is so.
5.What causes athlete's foot? How is it treated? Why is penicillin ineffective against this organism?

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I hope these help.

Irish Potato Famine

The statistics regarding this are awe inspiring and explain for the diaspora of the Irish Nation to countless other countries particularly in the U.K and America. Even now a century and a half later the ramifications are still evident in the lack of development during the industrial age and the low population level, particularly in Southern Ireland, Eire.

The fungus involved phytopthora infestans (Phytophthora infestans) caused the failure of the potatoe crop not just for one harvest but for several successive harvests, the potato was the main in many communities the only source of carbohydrate/ nutrition for people. There was widespread famine and countless fatalities. Estimates suggest between 1846 and 1849 about 12% of the population (1,000,000) were killed and a further 1,000,00 people took the choice of fleeing the country to avoid starvation.

There were two further exacerbating problems
1. the population relied on monoculture
2. there was a limitation on the number of strains of potato that were used so there was a lack of genetic variation.

The fungus was particularly effective in damp cool conditions aerial parts of the plant i.e parts above the surface, stems and leaves become infected this causes loss of turgour within the leaves and stems a collapse of the plant and a s a consequence a failure of the plant to make the essential food reserves that are translocated down the ...