These questions are presented.© BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com October 24, 2018, 5:49 pm ad1c9bdddf
Enzymes (and all proteins for that matter) are made up of amino acids linked to each other through the peptide bond. The linear sequence of amino acids is known as the primary structure of the protein. The primary structure is encoded for through the DNA. If you took the enzyme, and stretched it out end to end while holding onto both ends (the C-terminus end and the N-terminus end), then you would have a polypeptide with only primary structure. This, of course, doesn't exist in the cell. No enzyme exhibiting only primary structure would ever work.
However, the primary structure is frequently folded into regular patterns like loops (helices) and sheets. These regular patterns of localized structure is known as secondary structure. All enzymes have secondary structure too. The two most common forms are the alpha-helix and the beta-pleated sheet. You can find pictures of these in most any textbook (Biology, Cell Biology, Biochemistry, etc.). A protein with primary and secondary structure only still wouldn't work.
All active and functional enzymes have what is called tertiary structure. Simply put, this is the complete three dimensional structure of the enzyme, with all of its twists and turns, coils and sheets, etc. all put together into one nice complex structure. So, one way to look at it is that the tertiary structure is made up of secondary structure which is made up of primary structure. Got it?
But, some (only some) enzymes also have another level of structure. How can an enzyme have more than a three dimensional shape, you ask? Well, it can't, ...
Enzymes are thoroughly exemplified.
Pathogenicity and Immunology; Host resistance and the immune (CASE4)
In this module you have learned of the importance of the immune system in protecting against disease. For the Module 4 case assignment you will investigate the virus HIV and its effect on the human immune system, as well as important topics in infectious disease in general.
It is estimated that over 34 million people globally are living with HIV/AIDS. (http://www.avert.org) Acqiured immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been described as the most common secondary immune deficiency disease in the world. Infection with the human immune deficiency virus (HIV) has been identified as the cause of AIDS. For the module 4 case assignment prepare a paper addressing the following:
Provide a general discussion of HIV/AIDS. In your paper discuss the structure of HIV and how the viral structure facilitates entry into host cells. Begin your research in your Introductory Microbiology textbook, using "Ch 11: Microbial Epidemiology," Ch 7: Viral Effects on Cells," and "Ch 17: Viruses and Prions" in A Concise Manual of Pathogenic Microbiology.
Discuss the function of HIV protease, integrase, and reverse transcriptase.
Explain how this pathogen causes disease in the host.
Identify the characteristics of HIV which account for its transmission. Include the basic epidemiology of this virus and its method of transfer.
The normal function of the immune system. Be sure to explain the function of B-lymphocytes, killer T-lymphocytes, helper T-lymphocytes, and macrophages.
The function of the complement system.
How HIV alters normal function of the immune system.
Note: The assignment will require you to engage in independent research. Begin by reading through the chapters listed above.