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Stem Cells and Cloning

Hi, i need some help for ideas for these questions:

1. List the steps in the cloning process.

2. Researchers are unable to guarantee that their work with stem cells will produce beneficial results. How should this uncertainty influence the debate on whether scientists should be allowed to conduct such research? Why??

3. Who should have jurisdiction over stem cell research (e.g., Congress, individual states, scientists, an independent agency, or the public)? Why??

4. Kidneys secrete hormones, filter waste products from the blood, and help regulate the concentration of salts in the blood. Normally, people have two kidneys. However, some people lose the function of their kidneys. For people needing a kidney, doctors can transplant a new one if there is an appropriate kidney available. Unfortunately, there are not enough kidneys for everyone needing transplants. Kidneys are an example of an organ that researchers hope someday to be able to grow from stem cells. Discuss at least 2 reasons for and 2 reasons against growing kidneys from stem cells.

Solution Preview

1. List the steps in the cloning process.

See a diagram of this process: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cloning_diagram_english.svg

1) An egg is obtained from a human or animal donor. The nucleus is removed from the egg.
2) Somatic cells (not sperm or eggs) with the DNA you want to clone are taken from a donor (the animal you want to clone or the patient you want to treat). The nucleus is removed from the somatic cell.
3) The somatic cell nucleus is implanted in the egg. Now the egg has the nucleus (and nuclear DNA) of the cell you want to clone.
4) The reconstructed egg is stimulated with chemicals or electric current to divide.
5) In several days, the embryonic stem cells are removed. They could be used to general an organ that is a match to the donor. Alternatively, the cells could be implanted in a mother (if you wanted to clone a whole organism).

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The following questions are related to the ethics of stem cell use. See the following for an introduction to ethical issues and embryonic stem cells: http://www.eurostemcell.org/factsheet/embyronic-stem-cell-research-ethical-dilemma (Also see the references at the bottom of this post.)

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2. Researchers are unable to guarantee that their work with stem ...

Solution Summary

The expert lists the steps in the cloning process for stem cells. The jurisdiction over stem cell research is provided.

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