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Pathway of Atoms in Gluconeogenesis

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A liver extract capable of carrying out all the normal metabolic reactions of the liver is briefly incubated in separate experiments with the following 14C-labeled precursors (see attached). Trace the pathway of each precursor through gluconeogenesis. Indicate the location of 14C in all intermediates and in the product, glucose.

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a) If you follow the pyruvate carboxylase reaction, in the first step 14CO2 is added ...

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Solution shows all intermediate steps and final outcome for the transformation in attached .jpg file.

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Glucose, Glycogen, Glycolysis and Krebs Cycle

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Answer 1, 2 and 6

1. Both glycogen and cellulose are polyglucose molecules.
a. Draw the basic structure of each (two glucose units in the main chain and one in the branch is sufficient), numbering all atoms
b. Compare and contrast the function of these related compounds
c. What is/are the molecular reasons for this functional difference?
d. How do you suppose a cell can make these two separate molecules without making errors such as glycogen-cellulose hybrid molecules?

2. Diagram the pathway of Glycolysis from glucose to pyruvate, giving structures and names of all pathway intermediates (enzyme mechanisms are not required) and names of enzymes (no abbreviations). Indicate where ADP, ATP, Pi, NAD+, or NADH is a substrate or product of a reaction.

6. Diagram the Krebs Citric Acid Cycle, beginning with pyruvate, giving structures and names of all enzyme substrates and products and names of enzymes (no abbreviations). Include on your diagram where (see attached file) where coenzyme A, H2O, or CO2 are substrates or products of reactions.

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