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Crime and DNA testing

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Crimes and DNA
In an incident where a man rapes a woman and get away without being identified, police ask local men to submit a DNA sample (by of which is then placed in the Nat'l Database). Most men in the town voluntarily submit a sample, and none of them matched the sample collected at the crime scene, but a partial match was found. Authorities then looked at immediate relatives of the close match and identified a suspect.

-What is the fundamental science of this scenario?

- What practices may have been used to conduct this investigation?

-What genetics may have triggered this close call of a match; how would this examination be different from a direct identification.

-What is some societal implication of the way the investigation was conducted? (Negative and positive factors)

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In an incident where a man rapes a woman and get away without being identified, police ask local men to submit a DNA sample (by of which is then placed in the Nat'l Database). Most men in the town voluntarily submit a sample, and none of them matched the sample collected at the crime scene, but a partial match was found. Authorities then looked at immediate relatives of the close match and identified a suspect.

-What is the fundamental science of this scenario?
Identification of suspects based on genetic testing is based on identifying a series of rare genetic elements. In some cases this is a particular pattern formed by restriction enzyme fragments (RFLPs), variable lengths of repetitive DNA (variable length polymorphisms), or a single nucleotide differences (single nucleotide polymorphisms). Whatever the DNA identifier it has to be rare enough to preclude matches due to random chance. The crime DNA sample can then ...

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Examination and processing of the crime scene

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SCENE

Joe stopped for a beer at the Turn-a-Round Lounge in Smalltown on his way home from work. He ran into his ex-girlfriend, Michelle, and her new boyfriend, Sam. Joe and Sam got involved in a heated confrontation, and bottles and fists started to fly. Sam pulled out a knife and stabbed Joe in the chest, nicking his aorta. Despite the bartender's attempts at CPR and putting pressure on the wound, Joe bled to death before the EMTs arrived.

When the fight began, there were 20 or so patrons in the lounge. When EMTs and police arrived on the scene, only two of the patrons and the bartender remained. Michelle and Sam were gone. The EMTs attempted CPR, but Joe was already dead. Two patrol officers secured the scene and detained the three remaining witnesses.

Upon examining the scene, police find three bloody footprints by the door where Michelle and Sam exited and tire tracks in the dirt parking lot where they made a hasty exit. Police obtain latent prints on a number of different surfaces using alternative light sources.

Police execute a search warrant at Michelle's residence and Joe's apartment. They find several threatening letters at Michelle's home that she claims were written by Joe.

ASSIGNMENT

Sam cut his finger when he stabbed Joe. Some of the blood from Sam's cut mixed with the blood on Joe's shirt. The Smalltown prosecutor has asked you to prepare a 3-5 page briefing for her that explains whether the lab can isolate Sam's DNA from Joe's and, if so, how that would be done. The prosecutor wants to prove that it is Sam's blood beyond an absolute certainty. Please explain whether or not this is possible and explain your reasoning. She has asked you to describe how the lab would process the evidence and what tests would be used. She specifically asked whether nuclear or mitochondrial DNA tests would be used and asked you to explain the difference. Reference all sources using APA style.

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