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Discussion of Psychological theories and concepts

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Think of a class outside your major. Using the Gestalt principle, 'The whole is greater than the sum of the parts', describe your preconceived perception of the class, three details that you now know are different from your initial perception, and your continuing perception in spite of the details. For example if this was a bible, philosophy, biology, or history class. How would you explain this?

In church and in convocation, announcements are made that affect you. Instead of falling asleep, you need to pay attention to them! Label and describe four techniques the speaker could use to keep your attention. What are some examples of techniques that could be used?

Name three concepts from Vygotsky's theory and give examples of how they could help to raise your ZPD in learning.

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The Gestalt Principle:

This principle of visual perception was developed by a German psychologist who stated that 'the whole is greater than the sum of the part'. This principle give the description of how the individuals have the tendency of generalizing visual elements into one unified whole instead of the single units they are. Selecting a class undertaking a degree in medicine, this will be the preconceived perception of the class; the entire course will seem to be difficult at the beginning since I would look at it as a whole unit instead of the different sub-units under the course. I would also perceive some similarity in the courses with the basis that they are relating to medical issues. This is because when placed under the same category they will appear to have the same function. The other perception that I will hold is that a succeeding course is a continuation of the preceding course. This is because when I visualize the enter class I will see the sub-units in a continuous form (Mcleod, 2007).

Three details that are different form my initial perception is that the course turned out to be easier than I thought they would be. Some sub-units handed in the class will not be the related to the main course work but just additional content. The courses in the class might not be relating in a continuous form and so the arrangement will not justify that the succeeding course is the continuation of the preceding one (How to, 2011).

Effective Speech Techniques:

The important thing ...

Solution Summary

The solution provides a discussion on the questions listed in the original problem (see above), in particular the 'gestalt principle' as it applies to class, speaking techniques and Vygotsky's theory.

See Also This Related BrainMass Solution

Psychology Theory & Concepts - Critical Thinking

Please see the attached file.Please provide a link ofr the questions I made errors:

Psychology Home work

1. Psychologists are interested in people's behavior and their mental processes. Psychologists believe that:
____a. behavior is impacted by environment, but not by a person's physical state.
____b. behavior is affected by a person's mental and physical state, but rarely by his or
his or her environment.
____c. a person's physical state, mental state, and the empirical evidence impact his
or her behavior.
____d. a person's physical state, mental state, and environment influence his or
her behavior.

2. R.D. Rosen included_____in his 1977 list of what he called "psychobabble."
___a. primal scream therapy.
____b. psychoanalysis
____c. using laboratory rats in psychological research.
____d. psychometrics

3. Critical thinking involves being able to:
___a. wonder, ask questions, define the question in clear terms, and accept the obvious
____b. examine the evidence, analyze assumptions, and avoid emotional reasoning.
__ _c. examine the evidence, be curious and ask questions, but accept your own feelings
as the best indicator of truth.
____d. define the question in clear terms, avoid emotional reasoning, and keep the
discussion simple.

4. When you make the comment, "I don't know," in the course of a discussion, this
indicates that you:
___a. have a tolerance for uncertainly.
____b. are an empirical scientist.
____c. are evasive and opposed to further inquiring.
____d. accept your own ability.

5. Like today's psychologists, ancient psychologists sought to describe, predict,
understand, and modify behavior. To gather information these scholars mainly
relied on:
____a. researching archival information.
____b. their own intuition.
____c. examining all the evidence.
___d. observing and describing individual cases.

6. _____was the first person to announce that he intended to make psychology a science.
____a. William James
___b. Wilhelm Wundt
____c. Sigmund Freud
____d. Joseph Gall

7. A person was asked to break down into its basic elements the immediate experience of tasting an apple. This approach represented the_____ school
of psychology.
____a. behaviorist
____b. functionalist
___c. structuralist
____d. psychoanalytical

8. Wilhelm Wundt's approach to psychology fell out of favor because of its' reliance
____a. interpretation.
____b. insights
____c. phrenology
___d. introspection

9. Functionalism is a school of psychology that asks:
___a. how people behave and why they behave the way they do.
___ b. what happens when someone behaves the way they do.
____c. who in the person's family behaves in a similar way.
____d. what part of the brain makes people behave the way they do.

There are several different theories of functionalism (see http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/f/function.htm) and you may want to check which type your test is referring to.

10. The neurologist_____stressed the importance of listening to patients' reports of
depression, nervousness, and obsessive habits.
____a. Whilhelm Wundt
____b. William James
___c. Sigmund Freud
____d. Joseph Gall

11. A 42-year-old married female of Asian descent moves from Chicago to Mississippi
to help her husband care for his elderly mother. The wife is having trouble sleeping,
is irritable, and finds herself crying over what she describes as "nothing." The_____
psychological perspective would focus on the patient's hormone level to determine if
menopause was occurring.
___a. biological
____b. psychodynamic
____c. cognitive
____d. sociocultural

12. The learning psychological perspective is concerned with:
____a. cognitive thoughts that might affect a person's actions, feelings, and choices
___b. what rewards or punishments exist that might support or discourage specific
____c. how unresolved, unconscious conflicts might impact behavior and feelings.
____d. how bodily events might influence behaviors, feelings, and thoughts.

13. Bill (15) has recently transferred to a new high school and has made some
friends there. He is having trouble in school and is experiencing difficulty
concentrating. One of Bill's teachers has reported that he sometimes demonstrates
a bad attitude toward authority. The_____psychological perspective would look
at the impact his new friends might be having on his attitudes and behaviors.
____a. biological
____b. psychodynamic
____c. learning
___d. sociocultural

14. You might hear the following statement from a_____psychologist: "Psychoanalysis
is too pessimistic about human nature, and behaviorism views humans as mindless."
___a. Humanist
____b. learning
____c. feminist
____d. social-cultural

(see http://www.science.mcmaster.ca/psychology/psych1a6/1aa3/Person/lec1-2.htm)

15. Which psychological discipline has had a major impact on efforts to make
psychology the study of all human beings?
_____a. Humanistic
____b. Psychodynamic
____c. Sociocultural
___d. Feministic

16. Alan works in human resources. He wants to study how he can improve his skills in
selecting employees who have the greatest aptitude for specific job areas. He would
do well to consult with a/an_____psychologist.
____a. experimental
____b. developmental
___c. industrial/organizational
____d. educational

17. Samantha hopes to work as a teacher's assistant in an elementary school. She decides
it would be helpful to understand how people grow and change over time mentally,
physically, and socially. She would benefit most from a class in_____psychology.
____a. physiological
___b. developmental
____c. psychometric
____d. educational

18. Which one of the following statements about practitioners in the field of psychology
is TRUE?
____a. As a rule, marriage, family, and child counselors (MFCCs) are licensed by
their state and have only an Associate of Arts degree.
____b. Psychotherapists are specially trained to work with patients and apply therapeutic
____c. Psychoanalysts are medical doctors (M.D.) who are most likely to rely on
behavior therapy to treat their patients.
___d. Clinical psychologists can train as both research scientists and clinical

19. Which one of these statements about psychiatrists is TRUE?
___a. Psychiatrists have an M.D. degree and tend to take a medical approach to
emotional problems.
____b. Psychiatrists prescribe medications, rather than focus on patients' emotional
____c. Psychiatrists are trained primarily in Freudian psychoanalysis and are not
required to obtained an advanced degree in mental health.
____d. Psychiatrists specialize in conducting research using their patients as subjects.

20. The majority of psychologists are eclectic, which means they draw information from
different schools of thought rather than limiting themselves to information gained
from only one perspective. However, most psychologists agree that it's important to:
___a. gather empirical evidence, rather than rely on their hunches.
____b. study all schools of thought before selecting one.
____c. study all research findings before treating mental disorders.
____d. learn how to treat mental disorders before working in research.

Thank you.

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