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Adolescence and Adulthood Developmental Stages

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Adolescence and Adulthood Developmental Stages

1. What are the major milestones related to the physical development in adolescence? Briefly describe these milestones.

2. What are the major milestones related to the cognitive development in adolescence? Briefly describe these milestones. How does cognition change from late childhood to adolescence?

3. What are the major milestones related to the physical development in early, middle, and late adulthood? Briefly describe these milestones.

4. What are the major milestones related to the cognitive development in early, middle, and late adulthood? Briefly describe these milestones How does cognition change from adolescence to adulthood?

5. What are the major milestones related to the socioemotional development in adolescence? Briefly describe these milestones. How do peer relations change during adolescence? What type of strategies can be used to help adolescents with their problems?

6. What are the major milestones related to the socioemotional development in early, middle, and late adulthood? Briefly describe these milestones. What role does Erikson's Stage of Generativity versus Stagnation play in the socioemotional development of adults?

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RESPONSE:

1. What are the major milestones related to the physical development in adolescence? Briefly describe these milestones.

Physical milestones related to physical development in adolescence includes:

? Rapid gains in height and weight. During a one-year growth spurt, boys and girls can gain an average of 4.1 inches and 3.5 inches in height respectively. This spurt typically occurs two years earlier for girls than for boys. Weight gain results from increased muscle development in boys and body fat in girls.

? Development of secondary sex characteristics. During puberty, changing hormonal levels play a role in activating the development of secondary sex characteristics. These include: (1) growth of pubic hair; (2) menarche (first menstrual period for girls) or penis growth (for boys); (3) voice changes (for boys); (4) growth of underarm hair; (5) facial hair growth (for boys); and (6) increased production of oil, increased sweat gland activity, and the beginning of acne.

? Continued brain development. Recent research suggests that teens' brains are not completely developed until late in adolescence. Specifically, studies suggest that the connections between neurons affecting emotional, physical and mental abilities are incomplete. This could explain why some teens seem to be inconsistent in controlling their emotions, impulses, and judgments.

2. What are the major milestones related to the cognitive development in adolescence? Briefly describe these milestones. How does cognition change from late childhood to adolescence?

General milestones: Is likely to show formal operational reasoning (Piaget); long-term knowledge base continues to expand; develops more complex rules for problem solving; master the components of formal operational reasoning in sequential order; becomes less self-conscious and more self-confident; becomes better at everyday planning and decision making; evaluated vocational options terms of interests, values and abilities; language-can interpret adult literary work.

Changes from late childhoods to adolescence:

(a) Late childhood to Early Adolescent (10-14)

* Concrete thought dominates .here and now.
* Cause-effect relationships underdeveloped
* Stronger .self. than .social awareness

(b) Middle adolescent (15-17)

* Growth in abstract thought; reverts to concrete thought under stress
* Cause-effect relationships better understood
* Very self-absorbed

(c) Late Adolescents (17-21)

* Abstract thought established
* Future oriented; able to understand, plan and pursue long range goals
* Philosophical and idealistic (http://www.oregon.gov/DHS/ph/ah/growth/adoldevstages.pdf)

In other words, these advances in thinking can be divided into several areas:

? Developing advanced reasoning skills. Advanced reasoning skills include the ability to think about multiple options and possibilities. It includes a more logical thought process and the ability to think about things hypothetically. It involves asking and answering the question, "what if...?".

? Developing abstract thinking skills. Abstract thinking means thinking about things that cannot be seen, heard, or touched. Examples include things like faith, trust, beliefs and spirituality.

? Developing the ability to think about thinking in a process known as "meta-cognition." Meta-cognition allows individuals to think about how they feel and what they are thinking. It involves being able to think about how one is perceived by others. It can also be used to develop strategies, also known as mnemonic devices, for improving learning. Remembering the notes on the lines of a music staff (e, g, b, d, and f) through the phrase "every good boy does fine" is an example of such a mnemonic device. (http://www.ext.vt.edu/pubs/family/350)

3. What are the major milestones related to the physical development in early, middle, and late adulthood? Briefly describe these milestones.

(A) Early Adulthood - Physical Changes
* The Nature and Characteristics of Adulthood
* "Emerging adulthood" (18-25).
* The transition from adolescence to adulthood.

Milestones adulthood --
* Full-time job.
* Economic independence.
* Independent decision making.
* Stable religious views.
* Marriage: In developing countries.
* The Transition from High*School to College
* Top-dog phenomenon.
* Interaction with diverse ethnic group.
* Positive features of transition.
* Challenges of transition.
* Increased college education in the U.S.
* Increasing returning to college students.

Physical Development
* Peak in Physical Performance (18-30 years).
* Decline in physical performance (around 30).
* Hidden dangers of decline:
* Overly optimistic expectations about health.
* Bad health habits/physical abuse.
* Gender differences.
* Ethnic differences.
* Remedies for health decline.

Need Exercise, Aerobic exercise (jogging, swimming, or cycling)
* Physical and psychological gains.
* Burns calories
* Elevate the person's metabolic rate.
* Lowers a person's set point for weight.
* Stimulates heart and lung activity.
* Need to burn 300 calories a day (2000 in a week).
* 30 minutes or more of moderate-intense physical activity 5-7 days a week.
* Strategies for building exercise habit.
(http://www.mnstate.edu/kausar/psyc202/chapter_14.htm)

(B) Middle Adulthood - Physical Development and Changes

* Declining physical health.
* Gradual midlife changes unlike the dramatic changes in adolescence.
* Role of genetic makeup and lifestyle factors
* Noticeable Visible Signs of Aging
* Physical appearance
* Different Interpretation of signs of aging for men and women.

Height and Weight
* Losing height (1/2 inch per decade).
* Gaining weight
* Body fat (20 percent or more).
* Obesity leads to health problems and a shorter life span.

Strength, Joints, and Bones
* Decrease in muscle strength.
* Decreased efficiency of tendons and ligaments.
* Progressive loss of bone.
* women have twice the rate of bone loss as men.

Vision and Hearing
* Sharpest decline in accommodation of the eye (40-59 years).
* Decline in hearing by the age of 40.
* Decline in the sensitivity to high pitches.
* Men experience it sooner than women do.

Cardiovascular System
* The heart and coronary arteries change.
* Increase in cholesterol level.
* Increase in blood pressure (in 40's and 50's).

Sleep
* Frequent wakeful periods.
* Less of the deepest type of sleep.

Health and Chronic Disorders
* Decline in the frequency of accidents declines.
* Increase in Chronic disorders (slow onset and long duration).
* Arthritis: the leading chronic disorder followed by hypertension.
* More fatal chronic disorders in men (heart disease, cancers and stroke).
* More non-fatal chronic disorders in women (arthritis, varicose veins, and bursitis).
Hardiness, Health and Social Relationships
* Hardiness: A sense of commitment, control and a perception of problems as challenges.
* A buffer of stress and reduced illness.
* Hardiness, exercise, and social support can alleviate ...

Solution Summary

By addressing the questions, this solution discusses the related aspects of adolescence and adulthood developmental stages. References provided.

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