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Lifespan longitudinal study

Examine the following stages of life in an adult 65 years and older.

- Childhood ages 6-11
- Adolescence teen age years
- Young adulthood 20's - 30's
- Middle age adulthood 40's - 60's
- Old age over 65

Focus on the following areas
Cognitive development
Emotional development
Social development

Introduction - background information, physical appearance
Developmental information: Describe factual information obtained in each of the focus areas at each stage of the life cycle
Analysis: For each develomental area; discuss how the person remainded the same from stage to stage. Consider how she/he was different and how she/he has changed from stage to stage. Include references and cite them.

Solution Preview

Examine the following stages of life in an adult 65 years and older.

Life-span development consists of the survival, growth and developmental changes which take place from infancy through late adulthood. For instance, changes take place within stages of human growth and development that are marked by physical, cognitive, and social changes (Santrock, 2006, p. 8). Santrock presents research in which three important sources are stated to influence development across the human life span which include: (1) normative age-graded influences (genetic and hormonal influences affecting the brain, body and nervous system (2) normative history-graded influences (periods of economic and political upheaval caused by wars and economic depression) (3) non-normative life events (caused by unexpected and unusual circumstances). Research indicated that sociological and emotional responses to the environment can affect human development. Human development is defined as the pattern of change that begins at conception and ends with old age (Santrock, 2006).The major stages of lifespan development are described and discussed beginning with childhood and ending with old age.

- Childhood ages 6-11

Childhood consists of periods of infancy, early childhood, and middle or late childhood that include: (Infancy ranging from birth to 24 months, (b) Early childhood is the period of infancy to five years, and middle or late childhood make up the period from six years to 11 years. Childhood is the period when development involves the recognition of self-understanding and self-recognition, particularly early childhood. Piaget (cited in Plotnik, 1986) note that children learn by interacting with their environment. His cognitive development theories were advanced in the literature to explain the development of childhood as they go through four stages: (1) Sensorimotor stage [describing their world]), (2) Preoperational stage [child utilizes symbols and images], (3) Concrete operations stage [child develops logical mental operations], and (4) Formal operations stage [thinking and reasoning is developed] (p. 382). Based on the theory, children take an active part in their cognitive development. Perception of the world requires interaction between the human being and the environment. Researchers suggest that in order to interact with other children a child must possess social competences (Nye, 2007).

- Adolescence teen age years

Adolescents transition from childhood to adolescence beginning from 10 to 12 years of age and ending at the period of 18 to 22 years of age. Research suggests that as children grow older, peer relations are important, and peers become important to the socio-emotional development of young children and later for adolescents. The transitional period consists of biological, cognitive, and social changes with the most changes taking place ...

Solution Summary

This solutio examines stages of life from childhood to old age.

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