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Career Counseling Across the Lifespan

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I need some help analyzing the 'Racial Disparities and Discrimination in Education' article (attached), and also answering these questions:
-synthesize your understanding and then justify career counseling across the lifespan.
-State what really struck you after reading the article (see attached), and identify the influence that career counseling can have when working with children, adolescents, and adults.
-How does the developmental lifespan perspective influence career and educational planning, placement, and evaluation?

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Solution Summary

This solution discusses career exploration in the context of achievement and group differentiation. All references are included.

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(1) Synthesize your understanding and then justify career counseling across the lifespan.

Data have been presented that point to observable differences in cognitive abilities and behavioral development during the early child years, beginning with preschool for some minority groups; and White and middle-class students. Based on several reports including the Children of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 79 (CNLSY79); the U.S. Dept.; and Early Childhood Longitudinal Kindergarten (CLS-K); and of Labor (as cited in Fargas, 2003); statistics show that African American, Latino and American Indian students are lacking behind White and middle-class students. Farkas's (2003) study highlights the racial disparities and racial discrimination that exist between these groups. Other studies reveal the impact of cultural factors and socio-economic status on education inequality (e.g., Dimaggio, 1982 as cited in Mark, Cresswell, & Ainley, 2006). All these factors play a role in a student's ability to learn, and can be used to justify the need for attention to career counseling across the life span by career counselors. For example, Farkas offers the explanation that learning is a cumulative process; the learning that takes place during specific periods of a child's life is critical to or her progress in school. For instance, he asserts that the performance gap between Black students and White, middle class students remain from Grade 1 thru 12. Other research focused on developmental theories and learning found that the first five years of life were crucial for cognitive and behavioral development. According to Linderberger, & Baltes (2000), the development of the mind is described as lifelong, multi-dimensional, and multi-functional. As they explain further, based upon this view, life span psychology informs general knowledge concerning three components of individual development associated with learning: (1) inter-individual regularities in development, (2) inter-individual difference in development, and (3) individual ...

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