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Attachment, Strange Situation and Other Developmental Issues

Please help me with these questions:

3) Describe the four phases of attachment development according to ethological theory.
4) Describe the Strange Situation and the four attachment patterns assessed by it.
7) Describe behaviors characteristic of depression in adolescents, and differentiate between typical patterns of boys and girls.
8) Describe the risks associated with low birth weight, and interventions for preterm infants.
9) Describe how children's friendships change from the preschool years to middle childhood.
10) Discuss the impact of religious beliefs on moral values and behavior.

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3) Describe the four phases of attachment development according to ethological theory.

Bowlby wrote that attachment bonds have four defining features: proximity maintenance (wanting to be physically close to the attachment figure), separation distress, safe haven (retreating to caregiver when sensing danger or feeling anxious), and secure base (exploration of the world knowing that the attachment figure will protect the infant from danger). Attachment relationships evolve over the first two years of life and beyond, but most importantly these early attachment relationships overlap with a time of significant neurological development of the brain. According to ethological theory, Bowlby describes a series of stages that attachment develops: reattachments, attachment in the making, clear-cut attachment and goal corrected partnership. This process began the 1st month of life and progressed, according to Bowlby. Attachment becomes fully developed in the second year f life, when the child and other form a partnership. During the later stages of attachment, the baby is able to manipulate the mother into desired outcomes, but the child also has the ability to understand the mother's point of view. The mother and child reach a mutually accepted compromise.

4) Describe the Strange Situation and the four attachment patterns assessed by it.

The "strange situation" is an experimental procedure used to assess infant attachment style. The procedure consists of the following eight episodes

1. Parent and infant are introduced to the experimental room.
2. Parent and infant are alone. Parent does not participate while infant explores.
3. Stranger enters, converses with parent, then approaches infant. Parent leaves inconspicuously.
4. First separation episode: Stranger's behavior is geared to that of infant.
5. First reunion episode: Parent greets and comforts infant, then leaves again.
6. Second separation episode: Infant is alone.
7. Continuation of second separation episode: Stranger enters and gears behavior to that of infant.
8. Second reunion episode: Parent enters, greets infant, and picks up infant; stranger leaves inconspicuously.

The infant's behavior upon the parent's return is the basis for classifying the infant into one of three attachment categories, with a fourth stage added later.

Four stages are: the secure, anxious avoidant, anxious ambivalent and disorganized. The anxious-avoidant and disorganized types sought attachment but experienced anxiety as a consequence of attachment. Also, both experienced anxiety at the disappearance of the mother and were difficult to soothe upon reunion. The disorganized children were particularly ambivalent upon reunion with their attachment figure, both approaching and avoiding contact. Interestingly, although the anxious-avoidant children ...

Solution Summary

This solution highlights several developmental topics, including the four phases of attachment development, Strange Situation, behaviors characteristic of depression in adolescents, risks associated with low birth weight, and interventions for preterm infants, how children's friendships change from the preschool years to middle childhood and the impact of religious beliefs on moral values and behavior.

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