Explore BrainMass

Infancy and Early Childhood Stages

This content was STOLEN from BrainMass.com - View the original, and get the already-completed solution here!

Please assist me with ideas so that I can write a paper on this topic.

Select two issues that impact development during the infancy and early childhood stages. (e.g. neglect,attachment, formation of trust, bonding.) Write a 3-4 page paper in which you describe the impact that your selected issues have on the physical, cognitive, or sociological development in the infancy and early childhood stages. In your description analyze how the occurrence of these issues might influence an individual's future development. Use developmental theories and research to support your assertions.

© BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com December 20, 2018, 2:29 am ad1c9bdddf

Solution Preview

I found a wealth of information for you to consider for this interesting paper and to write in your words. I also attached a supporting article.

Like all academic papers, it will include an Introduction (introduces topic; purpose statement); Body (attachment; neglect, etc.); and Conclusion (restate purpose, sum up main points).


Let's look at attachment and neglect.

I. Attachment

Attachment theory is one of the most studied aspects of psychology today. Bowlby and Ainsworth's attachment models are common references in attachment theory research. The attachment model explains infant behavior towards their attachment figure, during separation and reunion times. It is believed that attachment behaviors formed in infancy will help shape the attachment relationships people have as adults (Lee, 2003).

The first and most well known view on attachment theory is that of J. Bowlby, who is known as the father of attachment theory. He believed that attachment begins at infancy and continues throughout life and there are several innate behavioral control systems that are needed for survival and procreation. The attachment and exploration systems are central in his attachment theory (Elliot & Reis, 200, as cited in Lee, 2003). An infant will first establish a strong attachment with its primary caregiver, who will be the infant's base of exploration. It is an infant's innate behavior to want to explore new things, but when a child reaches away to explore and becomes in danger or scared, the primary caregiver will be its secure protection base (Less, 2003).

Bowlby established the foundation for Ainsworth's attachment theory. Like Bowlby, Ainsworth also believed in the control systems but went a step further with the Strange Situation, which splits attachment up into three types: secure, avoidant, and resistant. The secure type is when an infant seeks protection or comfort from their mother and receives care consistently. The mother is usually rated as loving and affectionate. The avoidant type is when the infant tends to pull away from their mother or ignore her. The mother is usually rated as rejecting of the child's attachment behavior. The resistant type is when the infant tends to stay close to their mother. The mother is usually rated as being inconsistent in their care (Fraley & Spieker, 2003, as cited in Lee, 2003). The Strange Situation is has become standard practice in psychology today (Lee, 2003).

According to Ainsworth's attachment theory growing out of this research, sensitive responding by the parent to the infant's needs results in secure infant attachment, while lack of sensitive responding results in one of two types of insecure attachment: avoidant attachment or resistant/ambiva- lent attachment (infant shows hostility toward the parent). Ainsworth's theory provides not only a framework for attachment patterns in infants, but also a framework for understanding love, loneliness and grief in adults. Attachment styles in adults are thought to stem from the working (or mental) models of oneself and others that were developed during infancy and childhood, a central tenet of Blatz's earlier security theory (Lee, 2003).

When babies are in pain, scared or tired, they instinctively seek their parents' protection. How parents respond to these signals in infancy can have a strong impact on their child's social and emotional development later in life (Lee, 2003).

In the early years, attachment relationships are the predominant and most influential relationships in a child's life. Research suggests that they set the stage for emotional and cognitive interpretations of social and non-social experiences, for language development, and for acquiring meaning about oneself and others. Attachment relationships continue to influence thoughts, feelings, motives and close relationships throughout life (Peters, 2006).

There are four types of attachment: secure, insecure-avoidant, insecure-resistant and insecure-disorganized. "The quality of attachment that children develop appears largely dependent on caregivers' availability,"says Mary Dozier (as cited in Peter, 2006), a researcher at the University of Delaware. When caregivers are responsive, children tend to develop secure attachments, seeking out caregivers when distressed. When caregivers reject children's bids for reassurance, children tend to develop avoidant attachments, turning away from caregivers when distressed. When caregivers are inconsistent in their availability, children tend to develop resistant attachments, showing a mixture of proximity- seeking and resistance. When caregivers are frightening to children, children have difficulty developing secure attachments and instead often develop disorganized attachments, which leave them without a consistent strategy for dealing with stress (Peters, 2006).

An extensive ...

Solution Summary

This solution provides assistance in examining two issues that impact development during the infancy and early childhood stages. (e.g. neglect, attachment, formation of trust, bonding) on physical, cognitive, or sociological development. Implications for future developments are also examined. Validated by theory and research, and supplemented with an article on the effects of neglect on brain function, as well as links for further research. References in APA format.