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The components of classical and operant conditioning

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This solution strongly correlates the main principles of classical conditioning and operant conditioning as well as provides an example of when classical conditioning may be useful, and an example of when operant conditioning may be useful.

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Learning theorists came to see conditioning as the very core of the learning process and believed that chains of conditioned responses (CRs) could be built up to form the most complex of behaviors. There are two kinds of conditioning. The first is known as classical conditioning and refers to the original Pavlovian paradigm. Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov undertook an experiment that showed that animals could learn to salivate in response to other stimuli, such as the sound of a bell, if these stimuli were associated with feeding. In classical conditioning, an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) such as a food elicits an unconditioned response (UCR) such as salivation. If, however, presentation of food is accompanied by or paired with, a bell ringing (the conditioned stimulus, CS), then salivation will subsequently occur when the bell is rung without food being presented. In these circumstances the salivation has become a conditioned response (CR). In contrast to classical ...

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This essay explains the components of classical and operant conditioning,