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How are phobias developed through classical and operant conditioning?

1. Explore how phobias can be developed through classical conditioning.

2. Explore how addictions can be developed through operant conditioning.

3. Distinguish between classical and operant conditioning.

4. Explain what extinction means and how it is achieved in both classical and operant conditioning.

Please provide references used.

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1. Phobias can develop through classical conditioning as a result of the pairing of a stimulus with a negative reaction. The individual is conditioned to associate a negative reaction when viewing a specific stimulus resulting in an irrational fear of a specific object or situation. For example someone who experienced a panic attack while driving on one occasion may come to associate driving with the panic response. But the driving itself is not the cause of the panic. The individual has become conditioned to panic when faced with driving resulting in the development of a phobia.

2. According to the operant conditioning theory drugs ...

Solution Summary

This solution discusses certain aspects of operant and classical conditioning.