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    Operant and Clssical Conditioning of Psychopharmacology

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    Compare and contrast operant and classical conditioning of psychopharmalogical drug effects. Research an example of a study using each type of conditioning from the peer-reviewed literature. In this please help with designing an analysis of how operant and classical conditioning have shaped psychopharmacology. Use specific examples from the research to support. Finally, explain how this analysis further informs how drugs function as reinforcers.

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    Compare and contrast operant and classical conditioning of psychopharmalogical drug effects.

    Based on the Theory of operant conditioning studies are conducted on the behavior. For example, with his human experiments, Skinner (as cited in Ruz, 1995) presented theories that sought to explain human behavior in response to the environment. Given Skinner's concept of operant conditioning, all forms of human behavior could be explained by strengthening or weakening behavior, or by reinforcement or punishment. Thus, operant conditioning was described as a process of changing behaviors by rewarding (positive reinforcement) or punishing (negative reinforcement). The application is performed until the subject associates the action with pleasure or distress.
    Pavlov (1927) was the first experimenter to suggest drugs as being relevant to an unconditioned stimulus. The interpretation of this form of conditioning was expressed in his experiment with "Pavlov's dog" and introduced as classical conditioning. Thus, classical conditioning was explained as the pairing of some neutral (i.e., conditioned) stimulus (e.g. tone, sound) with an unconditioned stimulus (e.g. light) to naturally evoke a learning response (Bradizza, C.M., Stasiewkz, 2009).

    Research printed on Pavlovian psychopharmacology suggests that a conditioning analysis of drug administration is associated with physiological changes in the body. For example, according to Dangfelder (2004), alcohol is reported to cause alcoholics to have withdrawal symptoms when the body anticipates, but do not receive a large amount of the drug. The drug disturbance and discomfort associated this response cause the body to crave more alcohol. On this basis, research is presented to suggest that if the body anticipates alcohol, it can also be taught ...

    Solution Summary

    This solution discusses operant and classical conditioning applied in the use of psychopharmacology.