Do intelligence tests effectively measure one's intelligence? What are specific examples of intelligence assessments.
****This work is not intended to be hand in ready, and it is advised that the student use the material in this posting as guidance and information for their original work****
In support of an assertion that intelligence tests do not accurately measure intelligence consider the following statement by one of the most eminent psychologists and famous educative theorists of the modern era Howard Gardner:
The tale describing the rise of the I.Q. test, and the various debates that have raged about it, has been retold so many times that I am relieved of the necessity to relate the sound and fury once again. Most scholars within psychology, and nearly all scholars outside the field, are now convinced that enthusiasm over intelligence tests has been excessive, and that there are numerous limitations in the instruments themselves and in the uses to which they can (and should) be put. Among other considerations, the tasks are definitely skewed in favor of individuals in societies with schooling and particularly in favor of individuals who are accustomed to taking paper-and-pencil tests, featuring clearly delineated answers. As I have noted, the tests have predictive power for success in schooling, but relatively little predictive power outside the school context, especially when more potent factors like social and economic background have been taken into account. Too much of a hullabaloo over the possible heritability of I.Q. has been sustained over the past few decades; and while few authorities would go so far as to claim that the I.Q. is in no degree inherited, extreme claims on heritability within and across races have been discredited. (Gardner, 1993, pg 16)
The obvious point of the above statement is that the level of one's ...
Gardner continues; much of the information probed for intelligence tests reflects knowledge gained from living in a specific social and educational milieu. For instance, the ability to define tort or to identify the author of the Iliad is highly reflective of the kind of school one attends or the tastes of one's family. In contrast, intelligence tests rarely assess skill in assimilating new information or in solving new problems. This bias toward "crystallized" rather than "fluid" knowledge can have astounding consequences. An individual can lose his entire frontal lobes, in the process becoming a radically different person, unable to display any initiative or to solve new problems--and yet may continue to exhibit an I.Q.