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    Childhood and Adolescent Development

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    Part 1: Answer three of the following:

    1. Describe the development of self-understanding during middle childhood and its implications for children's self-esteem.

    2. Discuss the importance of peer groups to the development of school-age children.

    3. Discuss the special problems of bullies and their victims, and describe possible ways of helping such children.

    4. Discuss the concept of resilience, and identify the variables that influence the impact of stresses on schoolchildren.

    Part 2: Answer the following three:

    1. Discuss the emotional and psychological impact of pubertal hormones. Identify several factors that influence the onset of puberty.

    2. Describe evidence of formal operational thinking during adolescence, and provide examples of adolescents' emerging ability to reason deductively and inductively.

    3. Describe the development of identity during adolescence. Describe the four major identity statuses, and give an example of each.

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    1. Describe the development of self-understanding during middle childhood and its implications for children's self-esteem.

    Self-understanding develops through the eyes of others. How a child feels about him or herself impacts levels of self esteem, satisfaction with life, and overall outlook, which are common elements of social and emotional health, which are determined through the child's relationships and environment.

    Self-esteem refers to an individual's sense of his or her value or worth, or the extent to which a person values, approves of, appreciates, prizes, or likes him or herself (Blascovich & Tomaka, 1991). The most broad and frequently cited definition of self-esteem within psychology is Rosenberg's (1965), who described it as a favorable or unfavorable attitude toward the self (p. 15). Self-esteem is generally considered the evaluative component of the self-concept, a broader representation of the self that includes cognitive and behavioral aspects as well as evaluative or affective ones (Blascovich & Tomaka, 1991). While the construct is most often used to refer to a global sense of self-worth, narrower concepts such as self-confidence or body-esteem are used to imply a sense of self-esteem in more specific domains. It is also widely assumed that self-esteem functions as a trait, that is, it is stable across time within individuals. Self-esteem is an extremely popular construct within psychology, and has been related to virtually every other psychological concept or domain, including personality (e.g., shyness), behavioral (e.g., task performance), cognitive (e.g., attributional bias), and clinical concepts (e.g., anxiety and depression). While some researchers have been particularly concerned with understanding the nuances of the self-esteem construct, others have focussed on the adaptive and self-protective functions of self-esteem (Blascovich & Tomaka, 1991).

    The following developmental tasks and contexts that characterize the middle childhood years have implications for self-understanding and self-esteem:
    ? Social Emotional Competence
    ? School Experiences
    ? Physical Health and Well-Being
    ? Connectedness with Parents, Peers, School, and Community (Middle Childhood Inside and Out).

    For example, if a child has a self-understanding of being a competence person " I AM CAPABLE AND FEEL GOOD ABOUT MY FUTURE," this is correlated with high levels of self-esteem (Middle Childhood Inside and Out). In other words, a child's self-understanding that includes feelings of worth and competence are positively related to self-esteem. A child develops a positive self-understanding and self-image: " I am a worthwhile person," and social emotional competence, when she or he has supportive friends, parents and teachers. Positive self-understanding is correlated with higher levels of self-esteem. In contrast, a child who has negative peer relations and patents/teachers who are not supportive are correlated with lower levels of self-esteem. If the child's self-image - understanding of her or himself- is a negative one ("I am inadequate. I am stupid, I never do anything right" etc.), the child is likely to report low levels of self esteem. Likewise, research reveals a clear correlation between children's self-reported perceptions of their bodies (part of self-understanding) and self reports of depression and anxiety. This research showed that children reported increased levels of depression and anxiety if they perceived themselves to be overweight (Middle Childhood Inside and Out).

    2. Discuss the importance of peer groups to the development of school-age children.

    As children move toward the end of the first decade of ...

    Solution Summary

    Through addressing the questions, this solution discusses issues related to development in childhood (e.g. peers, self-esteem, bullies, victims, resilience, etc.) and adolescent (e.g. hormones, sexuality, identity, etc.).