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Environmental Hazards: Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)

Topics:
Significant Episodes in which an Environmental Hazard Caused Adverse Health Outcomes in Humans
Three Major Historical Events in Environmental Epidemiology

On the basis of your research, readings, and understanding of the above topics, answer the following questions:

Which environmental hazard, such as the pollutant or pollutants, caused the most adverse health outcomes and why?
What are the various adverse health outcomes that occurred as a result of exposure to the environmental hazard?
What are the steps that were taken to prevent the adverse health outcomes from occurring? Should there be any other step that was necessary to prevent the adverse health outcome? Explain.
Suggest the ways to prevent future occurrences of such episodes.
Is there an association between environmental hazards and adverse health outcomes in humans? Why or why not?
Analyze and explain the exposure-disease relationship for each of these three events.
What do you think is the impact of these events on the communities where they occurred?

Solution Preview

Environmental Epidemiology and Health Hazards
Topics:
Significant Episodes in which an Environmental Hazard Caused Adverse Health Outcomes in Humans
Three Major Historical Events in Environmental Epidemiology

On the basis of your research and your readings and understanding of the above topics, answer the following questions:
Which environmental hazard, such as the pollutant or pollutants, caused the most adverse health outcomes and why?
The environmental hazard that caused the most adverse health outcomes is PCBs. Polychlorinated Biphenyls ( PCBs) have been shown to cause cancer in animals. PCBs also have cause a number of non cancer health related effects in animals, including effects on the immune system, reproductive system, nervous system, endocrine system, and other health effects. Some studies in animals provide further evidence that PCBs cause cancer. Studies in human suggested that PCB can be a potential carcinogenicity. The data strongly suggest that PCBs are probable human carcinogens. The studies provided "overwhelming evidence that PCBs cause cancer in animals and study reviewd that every PCB mixture tested can cause cancer. The studies of workers exposed to PCBs have found increases in liver cancers and malignant melanoma. PCBs is cause cancer in the liver across multiple human studies.

What are the various adverse health outcomes that occurred as a result of exposure to the environmental hazard?
The adverse health outcomes that occurred as a result of ...

Solution Summary

The environmental hazard that caused the most adverse health outcomes is Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). PCBs have been shown to cause cancer in animals. PCBs also have caused a number of non-cancer health-related effects in animals, including effects on the immune system, reproductive system, nervous system, endocrine system, and other health effects. Some studies in animals provide further evidence that PCBs cause cancer. Studies in humans suggested that PCB can be a potential carcinogenicity.

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