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Pathophysiology and Nursing Management of Clients' Health

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Please refer to Case Study #1 in "Case Studies," below for instructions on how I have to complete the work.

Ms. A. is an apparently healthy 26-year-old white woman. Since the beginning of the current golf season, Ms. A has noted increased shortness of breath and low levels of energy and enthusiasm. These symptoms seem worse during her menses. Today, while playing in a golf tournament at a high, mountainous course, she became light-headed and was taken by her golfing partner to the emergency clinic. The attending physician's notes indicated a temp of 98 degrees F, an elevated heart rate and respiratory rate, and low blood pressure. Ms. A states, "Menorrhagia and dysmenorrheal have been a problem for 10-12 years, and I take 1,000 mg of aspirin every 3 to 4 hours for 6 days during menstruation." During the summer months, while playing golf, she also takes aspirin to avoid "stiffness in my joints."

Laboratory values are as follows:
â?¢ Hemoglobin = 8 g/dl
â?¢ Hematocrit = 32%
â?¢ Erythrocyte count = 3.1 x 10/mm
â?¢ RBC smear showed microcytic and hypochromic cells
â?¢ Reticulocyte count = 1.5%
â?¢ Other laboratory values were within normal limits.


1) Considering the circumstances and the preliminary workup, what type of anemia does Ms. A most likely have? In an essay of about750 words, explain your answer and include rationale

2) Please Cite references to support the responses to the case studies.

3) I need to prepare this work according to the APA guidelines.

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Due to the evidence presented in this case, it appears that Ms. A has a type of anemia due to a deficiency in B12, Folate, and Iron. Due to the fact that this individual is otherwise healthy and young, other forms of anemia can pretty much be ruled out. In addition, due to the fact that the symptoms of her anemia seem to get worse during her menstrual cycle, it is very reasonable to assume that the individual is losing a great deal of very important vitamins and minerals during her blood loss, which would likely result in a deficiency in vitamin B12, folate, and iron. The fact that this individual suffers from menorrhagia and dysmenorrheal, and has had these problems for the last 12 years, makes it apparent that this individual suffers from tremendous blood loss during her menstrual period. The menorrhagia that this individual is suffering from means that this individual will inevitably suffer from weakness and fatigue due to the blood loss that this individual suffers from during her menstrual cycle, which can partially explain the low energy levels that this individual has during the times before and after her menstrual cycle, largely due to the fact that it takes the body, a great deal of time to replace the red blood cells that are lost during prolonged ...

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