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Nutrition

1. ·Which foods most often contain saturated fat and cholesterol?
·What effect does saturated fat and dietary cholesterol have on our
health?
Identify a food high in omega-3 fatty acid and a food high in omega-6
fatty acid.
·List the effects of each (omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids) on health.
·What kinds of foods are high in trans fats?
·How do trans fatty acids affect our health?
Which oils are highest in monounsaturated fat?
·How does substituting monounsaturated fat for saturated fat affect
our health?
·Define LDL and name one factor that influences it.
·Define HDL and name one factor that influences it.

2. Jeffrey is a weight lifter. He has read that if he eats a high protein diet he will build muscle more quickly. He is 5'8" tall and weighs 160 pounds. He drinks 2 or 3 protein milkshakes daily and includes 2 eggs, a 4-ounce hamburger, and a 6-ounce steak in his daily intake.

a) Assuming that Jeffrey is NOT a body builder, what is his estimated protein need? (Remember that you have to divide pounds by 2.2 to obtain kilograms.)

b) How much protein (in grams) do the eggs, hamburger, and steak provide?

c) Do an internet search on protein supplements or go to a store that sells supplements. How much protein (in grams) does a typical "protein shake" add to the diet?

d) How does his protein intake compare to his requirement?

e) Now assume that Jeffrey IS a body builder. His protein need would average 1.6 g per kg. Does his diet meet his estimated protein need? If not, how much of the protein supplement (you researched in part "c") will he need? What is the additional cost?

3. Katrina is a twenty year old pregnant woman. She is 5' 6" and weighed 140 pounds before she got pregnant. She is half way through her pregnancy, and she drinks 3 cups of milk per day and always tries to eat at least 3 ounces of meat and 1 egg each day.

a) How much protein is she consuming each day (in grams)?

b) What was her estimated protein need before pregnancy? (See Table 6.2)

c) What is her estimated protein need during pregnancy? (See Table 6.2)

d) Is she consuming enough protein?

Solution Preview

Interesting questions! My understanding is that these questions are review questions. Let's take a closer look.

RESPONSE:

1. Which foods most often contain saturated fat and cholesterol?

It is the animal products that are the culprits e.g., meat, and eggs, milk, to name a few. However, these foods are also high in protein.

b. What effect does saturated fat and dietary cholesterol have on our health?

Saturated fat and dietary cholesterol are associated with an increased of heart disease. The biggest influence on blood cholesterol level is the mix of fats in the diet. 75% of cholesterol is produced in the liver, while 25% comes from diet. http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/fats.html
That is why the standards for labeling products has changed and the additional information will give consumers a more complete picture of fat content in foods -- allowing them to choose foods low in trans fat, saturated fat and cholesterol, all of which are associated with an increased risk of heart disease. Reducing the intake of trans fat and saturated fats is recommended by the Federal Dietary Guidelines for Americans. http://www.hhs.gov/news/press/2003pres/20030709.html

c. Identify a food high in omega-3 fatty acid (e.g., salmon) and a food high in omega-6 fatty acid (e.g. evening of primrose oil).

Omega-3 fatty acids are considered essential fatty acids. They are essential to human health but cannot be manufactured by the body. For this reason, omega-3 fatty acids must be obtained from food. Omega-3 fatty acids can be found in fish, such as salmon, tuna, and halibut, other marine life such as algae and krill, certain plants (including purslane), and nut oils. Also known as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), omega-3 fatty acids play a crucial role in brain function as well as normal growth and development. The American Heart Association recommends eating fish (particularly fatty fish such as mackerel, lake trout, herring, sardines, albacore tuna, and salmon) at least 2 times a week (see more detail at http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/omega-3-000316.htm).

There are several different types of omega-6 fatty acids. Most omega-6 fatty acids are consumed in the diet from vegetable oils as linoleic acid (LA; be careful not to confuse this with alpha-linolenic acid [ALA] which is an omega-3 fatty acid). Linoleic acid is converted to gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) in the body and then further broken down to arachidonic acid (AA). AA can also be consumed directly from meat, and GLA can be ingested from several plant-based oils including evening primrose oil (EPO), borage oil, and black currant seed oil. Meat is also high in Omega-6 fatty acids (http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/omega-6-000317.htm).

d. List the effects of each (omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids) on health.

Omega-6 fatty acids are considered essential fatty acids (EFAs), which means that they are essential to human health but cannot be made in the body. For this reason, they must be obtained from food. Omega-3 fatty acids are another important group of essential fatty acids. EFAs belong to the class of fatty acids called polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/omega-6-000317.htm).

Together, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids play a crucial role in brain function as well as normal growth and ...

Solution Summary

The solution responds the questions on nutrition (e.g. saturated fat, cholesterol and protein, etc.) and the cases of Jeffrey and Katrina.

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